Monday, February 8, 2016

Remarks by Ambassador Tanin at the open discussion entitled, Afghanistan: Is a Negotiated Settlement Possible

United Nations, NY, February 11, 2011: H.E. Ambassador Zahir Tanin, Permanent Representative of Afghanistan to the United Nations, joined a panel of fellow ambassadors in an open discussion entitled, “Afghanistan: Is a Negotiated Settlement Possible?” Jeffrey Laurenti, Senior Fellow and Director of Foreign Policy Programs at the Century Foundation facilitated the panel and Co-hosted, the event along with Jeanne Betsock Stillman, President of the United Nations Association Southern New York State Division.  The panel was a part of a day-long event organized by the Century Foundation and Mid-Atlantic region of the United Nations Association of the United States.

Former American Ambassador to Afghanistan, H.E. Robert Finn responded to questions about the changing role of the Taliban after international forces intervened in Afghanistan.  He explained that there is a need to focus on rebuilding infrastructure and strengthening security in the country. The US Military, he says, considers the progress of the Afghan army to be successful thus far, and that the Taliban does not have the “upper-hand.”

H.E. Ambassador Zahir Tanin responded to questions about possible negotiations with the Taliban.  He emphasized that “there is no military solution alone” in Afghanistan, and that it is the responsibility of the Afghan government and international forces to work together to bring peace and stability to the country. “The road to peace,” he said, “is through reconciliation.” The Afghan government is not yet engaged in formal talks with the Taliban, but supports reconciliation with those Taliban who are willing to disassociate with Al-Qaeda and terrorism, renounce violence, and accept the Afghan constitution.  “The reconciliation is not an end, it is a means,” Ambassador Tanin explained.  He highlighted three underlying issues that must remain central in the context of reconciliation: The ‘end state’ of the stabilization process, according to Ambassador Tanin, is defined by the end of the war, and establishing the Afghan leadership and ownership. The constitutional framework of the country, including human rights and democracy must be protected. Finally, International and regional partnerships must be balanced throughout the transition to Afghan-led security efforts through 2014 and beyond.

When asked about the potential for Pakistan delivering Taliban members as negotiators, H.E. Abdullah Hussein Haroon, Pakistan Ambassador to the United Nations, emphasized that the Taliban and Al Qaeda are separate entities. He explained that it is difficult for Pakistan’s government to stop the Taliban from entering Pakistan, comparing it to the US’s border control struggle with Mexico. However, the Afghan and Pakistani governments are working together to control the situation, he said, and Pakistan has a stake in the security and stability of its neighbor.

A lively question and answer session followed the debate. Key themes of this discussion included speculations about the potential for peace in the country’s future, a recognition of the thriving intellectual and cultural Afghanistan of the 1960s, and a debate about the effectiveness of international involvement in the country.

The full text of the opening remarks given by Ambassador Tanin are below:

How Afghanistan Views Negotiation with the Taliban

“As we know, there is no military solution alone in Afghanistan. At the same time it the prime responsibility of the Afghan government and of international forces present in Afghanistan to end the war and bring peace and security to the Afghan people after decades of suffering. It is our understanding that the road to peace is through reconciliation.

This year with the beginning of the transition to Afghan leadership, particularly the step by step takeover of the responsibility of security, talks with the Taliban are becoming an essential part of the stabilization efforts.

The government of Afghanistan is not yet engaged in formal talks with the Taliban but it has taken all necessary steps to widen its contact with those Taliban that can be reconciled.  The representatives of all political and social groups of the country through the High Peace Council have started to engage in peace talks.

In fact, a mutually reinforcing military and political stabilization effort will eventually lead to the beginning of negotiations with the Taliban. This is a position that both civilian and military leaders continue to support.

The official position of the government of Afghanistan on reconciliation is simple and clear: we want to talk to and reconcile all those Taliban who are ready to join the peace process in the country.

Our red lines for the negotiation to start and an agreement to work are based on a principled minimal proposition: disassociation with Al-Qaeda and terrorism, renouncing the violence and accepting the constitutional framework. Such a position provides a reasonable foundation for any solemn settlement.

The reconciliation is not an end, it is a means. As such, it should not be seen in isolation from three underlined issues:

A.    The “end state” of the stabilization process is defined by the end of the war, and establishing the Afghan leadership and Afghan ownership.

B.    The constitutional framework of the country which guarantees the human and fundamental rights of people; a peaceful and democratic basis of governance; and regular, peaceful transfer of leadership.

C.    The regional (rather international-regional) context. Peace and stability in Afghanistan is closely linked with a balance of relations between Afghanistan, its international partners and its neighbors.

The debate about the negotiation is based on different perceptions about a political solution. Obviously, we are not expected to negotiate a military exit from Afghanistan. The negotiation is aimed at engaging the armed opposition in a peace process to end the conflict. A peace agreement would allow the Taliban a safe return, security, and peace dividends. It is not about an anti-constitutional suggestion for power-sharing or establishing a coalition government. But reconciliation will provide the Taliban, from the low ranks to military leaders, with the prospect of taking part as a political force in political process, including elections, and social and economic life of the country.

Our history did not begin in 2001 and will not end in 2014.  As President Karzai has suggested, 2014 is the date that Afghans will take the lead of security of the country. 2014 is not the last rendezvous in Afghanistan. The partnership between the US, NATO and Afghanistan will endure for a long time beyond 2014. We signed an enduring partnership document with NATO in Lisbon in November 2010. We are now working with the relevant authorities of the US to prepare a new strategic partnership document in the coming months. These historical agreements, hopefully, will frame a secure prospect of lasting relations between Afghanistan, the US and NATO.”

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Forests for people, United Nations Forum on Forests

Statement by H.E. Dr. Zahir Tanin

Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Round table 1: Forests for people

9th Session, United Nations Forum on Forests

Mr. Chairman,

I thank you for convening this meeting early in 2011, our International Year of Forests and I would also like to indicate Afghanistan’s desire for active participation in relevant forums and activities in conjunction with the International year.

The pictures of arid and barren landscapes of Afghanistan we see today make it difficult for us to imagine that the country once had much more extensive forests, with cedars, firs and pines in high-alpine areas and coniferous mountain forests, as well as pistachios and almonds in dry woodlands. As a result of the absence of forest management and poor agricultural practices amongst other contributing factors due to decades of conflict and instability, forests cover less than 3% of total land area in Afghanistan today. UN Environmental Protection experts predict that at the current rate of deforestation, Afghanistan’s forests will disappear within 30 years if collective action is not taken to reverse the destruction. As a consequence of thirty years of war, around 50-60% of pistachio forests were destroyed. The provinces of Paktya, Khost and Paktika once had 450,000 hectares of forest, nearly 70% of which has been destroyed.  Most of the destruction in these Eastern provinces is due to illegal logging, even though this practice has been banned since 2006.

Healthy, functioning forests are the primary energy source in the form of fuelwood for rural communities, which make up 80% of our total population. Non-timber forest products, particularly fruits, supplement rural income. However, current rates of deforestation are threatening the existence of our remaining woodlands, and thereby indirectly threatening the livelihoods of our people.

Mr. Chairman,

The government of Afghanistan has taken steps to prevent further destruction of forests. An approach based on a national plan has been adopted by the government, including policies such as a Reintegration Program in 5 provinces of Afghanistan, the announcement of 9 national protection areas, rehabilitation of pistachio forests, community based natural resource management, the prevention of illegal logging and a new legislation for the management of forests. Among major challenges are security, lack of expertise, smuggling of timbers to neighboring countries and lack of donor interests to support forest related projects.

Afforestation projects represent valuable opportunities in reducing the level of poverty by generating employment, as well as providing products that will improve local economic conditions and diversify Afghanistan’s potential commodities for export. The key concerns of energy and food security in rural communities are also addressed in participatory afforestation programs. The return of forest and vegetation to our landscape is also crucial in our efforts to combat desertification. Vital ecosystem services provided by forests can also reduce the water stress Afghanistan faces, and sequester carbon in addressing the global problem of climate change.

Forests and sustainable forest management can contribute significantly to Afghanistan’s efforts in pursuing sustainable development, poverty eradication and the achievement of internationally agreed development goals including the Millennium Development Goals. Together with our development partners, Afghanistan is ready to facilitate knowledge sharing and improve our human and institutional capacity for sustainable forest management.

Thank you

A year-long celebration of vital role of world’s forests

Recognizing the role that forests play in everything from mitigating climate change to providing wood, medicines and livelihoods for people worldwide, the United Nations today kicked off a year-long celebration to raise awareness of the value of this important resource.

“Forests for People” is the main theme of the International Year of Forests, which was launched at a ceremony at UN Headquarters in New York attended by world leaders, Nobel Laureate Wangari Maathai and forest experts.

The General Assembly declared 2011 as the International Year of Forests to raise awareness on the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests, on which at least 1.6 billion people depend for their daily livelihoods and subsistence needs. Forests are also home to over 60 million people, mainly members of indigenous and local communities, who reside in forests.

“By declaring 2011 as the International Year of Forests, the United Nations General Assembly has created an important platform to educate the global community about the great value of forests – and the extreme social, economic and environmental costs of losing them,” noted Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.

Today’s launch ceremony, presided over by General Assembly President Joseph Deiss, is part of the high-level segment of the UN Forum on Forests, an intergovernmental policy forum dealing with forest-related issues. “Every one of us, all seven billion people on earth, has our physical, economic and spiritual health tied to the health of our forest ecosystems,” noted Jan McAlpine, the Director of the Forum’s Secretariat. “Throughout 2011, we will celebrate this intricate, interdependent relationship between forests and people,” she said.

Achim Steiner, Executive Director of the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), also noted that forests represent many things to many people including spiritual, aesthetic and cultural dimensions that are, in many ways, priceless. “But they are also cornerstones of our economies, whose real value has all too often been invisible in national accounts of profit and loss,” he added.

Forests cover about 31 per cent of total land area, amounting to just under 4 billion hectares, according to data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), which today released its “State of the World’s Forests” report.

The report, which is published every two years, stresses that the forest industry forms an important part of a “greener” economy and wood products have environmental attributes that would appeal to people.

The industry is responding to numerous environmental and social concerns by improving sustainability of resource use, using more waste materials to make products, increasing energy efficiency and reducing emissions. For example, 37 per cent of total forest production in 2010 came from recovered paper, wood waste and non-wood fibres, a figure that is likely to grow to up to 45 per cent in 2030, with much of that growth from China and India.

“What we need during the International Year of Forests is to emphasize the connection between people and forests, and the benefits that can accrue when forests are managed by local people in sustainable and innovative ways,” said Eduardo Rojas, FAO’s Forestry Director.

Ms. Maathai noted in her address at the launch, as well as in a briefing to reporters, that the value of the International Year is the opportunity to “explore the value of the trees, the forests and the environment, as well as the value of the environmental services that these resources give us.”

She added that too often forests and the services they provide are taken for granted and seen as resources that are unlimited. “But we all know now that we are facing situations where these forests are disappearing,” she told reporters.

As part of the launch, international filmmaker Yann Arthus-Bertrand will premiere his short film “FOREST.” The ceremony also featured clips from winning films from the International Forest Film Festival which was organised by the UN Forum on Forest Secretariat in collaboration with the Jackson Hole Wildlife Film Festival.

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On Behalf of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, Ambassador Zahir Tanin spoke at a round table session on “Forests for People.”  He described the dramatic changes in the Afghan forest coverage over the last thirty years.  “As a result of the absence of forest management and poor agricultural practices amongst other contributing factors due to decades of conflict and instability,” he said, “forests cover less than 3% of total land area in Afghanistan today.” Ambassador Tanin explained the necessity of preserving forests in order to serve as a primary energy source as well as for their non-timber products.

According to Ambassador Tanin, “UN Environmental Protection experts predict that at the current rate of deforestation, Afghanistan’s forests will disappear within 30 years if collective action is not taken to reverse the destruction.”  The government of Afghanistan, he explained, is working to address the issue through the adoption of a national plan to improve policies in relation to forests.