Tuesday, September 2, 2014

United Nation’s General Assembly Debate on the Situation in Afghanistan

Statement by H.E. Dr. Zahir Tanin

Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the United Nations

At the General Assembly Debate on the Situation in Afghanistan

Mr. President,

Excellencies,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

It is a great honor for me to address this august assembly on the occasion of the annual resolution on “The Situation in Afghanistan.” I would also like to thank the delegation of Germany for their dedication and work in drafting and negotiating this resolution, as well as convey my gratefulness for the support of all of the co-sponsors to this resolution. Within this resolution, your voices have shown renewed solidarity to a stronger, more peaceful Afghanistan.

Mr. President,

It has been more than seven years that international forces have entered our country. With so much time passed and so much focus on particular complexities, we may sometimes lose sight of the original noble purpose for our work in Afghanistan.

What is this noble purpose? We are in Afghanistan to prevent the malady of terrorism from infesting a nation and the world. We are here to proclaim together: No longer again will the Taliban regime have control of a country and crush the hopes, dreams and lives of their own people. No longer again should Al Qaeda have sanctuaries in Afghanistan and elsewhere to project its extremist terror to kill thousands of innocent people across the world.

We are also here so that the region and the world can enjoy the new wealth and prosperity of a strong Afghanistan that can offer new avenues for economic cooperation and trade routes. We are here so that a strong Afghanistan can serve as an example of a democratic Islamic country that can bridge communities and peoples of all faiths and cultures.

Let us hold this original purpose as the light to the dark challenges that lay before us today.

These challenges are critical. Terrorists commit increasingly brutal acts, killing teachers, aid workers, families. Terrorist activities also have an increasingly strong correlation with crime and narcotics. In addition, the Government of Afghanistan faces serious obstacles in its quest to fight corruption, hold elections, build a strong justice sector and increase economic development. And most importantly, the food shortage threatens more than eight million Afghan lives this upcoming winter, only a few weeks away.

Simultaneously, the world is facing the worst financial and credit crisis since the Second World War. Just as terrorism is a threat with no boundaries, the financial squeeze is affecting us all. While Afghanistan is fighting serious challenges with international ramifications, there is also a tightening of resources. It seems that we must do more, with less.

Mr. President,

To meet this challenge, we need to embark on a smart and sustainable strategy in Afghanistan that can harness our resources most effectively. Such a smart and sustainable strategy will always be guided primarily by the interests of the Afghanistan people and have as its foremost goal the creation of a self-sustaining Afghanistan. Such a strategy will have the following components:

1. Afghan ownership should increase at every level and in every dimension.

The Afghan National Army and National Police must increase in number and in strength for Afghans to protect Afghans. For this end, the Government of Afghanistan has ambitious goals to increase trainings, develop a comprehensive reform strategy, and expand the size of our army to 134, 000 troops by 2010. To meet these goals, we need continued international support.

In addition, the Government of Afghanistan is fighting corruption with the reorganization of its ministries, the work of the Independent Directorate of Local Governance, and the launching of the High Office of Oversight for Anti-Corruption. International support for these government initiatives would allow the government to improve the delivery of national services to Afghan people.

The Government of Afghanistan also aims to increase Afghan ownership of reconstruction and development efforts. While international support is necessary to strengthen our agricultural sector, to create new infrastructure projects and sources of energy, and to find new areas for local economy, we hope that this international support will increasingly be accomplished through the framework provided by our Afghan National Development Strategy.

Furthermore, the upcoming elections are a most important opportunity to increase ownership of Afghanistan by qualified Afghans. Fair, credible and timely elections are essential to strengthening legitimacy and creating a self-sustaining Afghanistan. However, security is the main precondition for holding elections. The Government of Afghanistan hopes for the support of the international community in its efforts to provide this security.

Lastly, the ingredients of a political solution to Afghanistan must involve the Afghan people and their communities. In order for any talks for reconciliation and the peace process to be successful, we must win the confidence of the Afghan people by including them in the process substantively.

2. International involvement should refocus on the overall security of the Afghan people.

The Government of Afghanistan recognizes the necessity of increased international troops to quell the insecurity today. To ensure this increase in international involvement most effectively protects the Afghan people, we should ascertain the following:

First, international troops in Afghanistan should expand its focus. Its goal must go beyond the targeting of the Taliban; its goal should be to protect the comprehensive security of Afghan people. Second, the Government of Afghanistan urges any increase in deployment of troops to be accomplished through further collaboration with the government. Thirdly, international troops need a review of the problem of civilian casualties. Although the Taliban are the reason for a majority of civilian casualties, the international forces for their part can do more to reduce the risk of civilian casualties. To build a self-sustaining Afghanistan, the people must be able to trust their government and its allies to protect their lives and their families.

In addition, the Government of Afghanistan deeply appreciates UNAMA’s efforts to address the human development component of security. Their mandate to deliver aid more effectively is an enormously important one at this time of limited resources. But in order for Kai Eide and UNAMA to meet this task, the financial resources they need to operate effectively must be addressed by member states. In turn, the Government of Afghanistan pledges to continue to work collaboratively with UNAMA.

3. A reemphasis on regional partnerships is necessary.

The challenges Afghanistan faces today are regional challenges. The Taliban and Al-Qaeda, the movement of refugees, and the narcotics trade are trans-border problems. Moreover, regional solutions promise great regional benefits in the areas of security, trade, energy, infrastructure and more positive people-to-people relationships. Thus we should strive together to find regional solutions to our shared challenges.

Our first priority is the relationship Afghanistan shares with our friends in Pakistan. They suffer equal harm at the hands of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda. To fight these terrorists who would kill our people, we must work together to eliminate the sanctuaries for these terrorists. The Government of Afghanistan increasingly recognizes that the only lasting peace is one that is forged together with our allies in the region. Thus, the support of the international community for such regional efforts is essential.

Mr. President,

At this time of great challenges, there is also reason for great hope.

In these seven years, we have taken some significant steps forward. We have built schools, health clinics, roads, and telecommunications infrastructure. We are making progress on human rights and the rule of law. Even as we speak, we are seeing a breakthrough in counter-narcotics efforts.  As we stated in October, the Taliban are fighting a war of perception. Their goal is to persuade the Afghan people that the international community is failing, especially at this time of transition after the US elections. To counter this, we must be equally vigilant in demonstrating our successes to the Afghan people. We know that there are two Afghanistans: one conveyed by news reports broadcasting only the atrocities, the other experienced by millions of Afghans building daily lives in peace. Let us not forget this second Afghanistan: our efforts are not in vain and we are making progress.

Today is also a day of great hope because there is a new beginning in two of Afghanistan’s most important allies. With Pakistan’s new President H.E. Mr. Asif Ali Zardari, we are witnessing the first moves toward collaboration and cooperation that we hope will lead to peace and security. With the United States, we welcome the recent historical elections and look forward to working with the president-elect Mr. Barack Obama. We appreciate the continued support of the United States in Afghanistan.

Mr. President,

Today is a most important day. We have reminded ourselves of our original, noble purpose for our work in Afghanistan. Success in Afghanistan is as vital today as it was seven years ago. And, within the context of a global financial crisis, we have identified the components for a smart and sustainable strategy to harness our resources most effectively.

For our part, the Government of Afghanistan is fully and absolutely dedicated to a stronger Afghanistan. Every international effort that is committed today to fulfilling the objectives of this resolution will be matched by our government’s efforts twicefold. In the upcoming months, let us together have the courage to determinedly and resolutely walk this path forward to a self-sustaining, peaceful, prosperous Afghanistan.

Third Committee debate on Agenda Item 39: Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Statement by H.E. Ambassador Zahir Tanin
Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the United Nations
At the Third Committee debate on Agenda Item 39: Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Mr. Chairman,

At the outset, I would like to thank the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) for his detailed report which contains useful information about the situation of the 1.4 million refugees and 52 million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) remaining worldwide. My Delegation strongly supports UNHCR’s noble mandate and particularly commends its long engagement with Afghans for over a quarter of a century. In the current context, UNHCR is providing precious support to the Afghan Ministry of Refugees and Repatriation in protecting and supporting Afghan Refugees, Returnees and IDPs, and in creating conditions conducive for the voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return and reintegration of Afghan Refugees after decades of war in the country.

Mr. Chairman,

The three decades of devastating conflict in Afghanistan forced millions of Afghans to go into exile; leaving behind their families, property, and motherland to escape from the brutality of war. Since the fall of the atrocious regime of the Taliban in 2001, which also marked the beginning of the reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan, more than 5.4 million Afghans have returned to their homeland, mainly from Pakistan and Iran. This year alone, almost a quarter million Afghan refugees from Pakistan and another 3, 000 from Iran have voluntarily returned to Afghanistan with the hopes of getting back to their places of origins: their villages, and rejoining their families to live peacefully again in their native land. Nevertheless some 3 million Afghans still remain in Pakistan (2.1 million) and Iran (915,000).

The Government of Afghanistan is grateful to those countries, especially our neighbors Pakistan and Iran, for having hosted our compatriots during the ravaging years of conflict in Afghanistan and for continuing their assistance to Afghans living in their lands. Afghanistan’s main objective in 2008 and 2009 will be to improve conditions for voluntary repatriation as well as reintegration of returnees, in conformity with the objectives contained in our National Development Strategy (ANDS) and in line with the spirit of the tripartite agreements on voluntary repatriation signed with the Governments of Iran, Pakistan, and UNHCR.

The voluntary return and reintegration of all Afghans refugees is a priority for our Government and we would like to underline the importance of the provision contained in the tripartite agreement which stresses the need to facilitate voluntary repatriation of Afghan Refugees from Iran and Pakistan if the conditions inside Afghanistan allow. We would like to seize this opportunity to call for sustained international assistance to create a feasible environment for the voluntary, gradual, safe and dignified return and reintegration of Afghan Refugees.

We welcome the temporary suspension of UNHCR’s assisted voluntary repatriation operation from Pakistan to Afghanistan during the annual winter break, in view of the difficulties that it could engender for the reintegration of Afghan Refugees.

Mr. Chairman,

Effective and sustainable reintegration requires economic and social development and the provision of employment opportunities, especially in the rural areas. Many returnees are facing reintegration difficulties including lack of land, shelter, water and basic services such as health care and education. The Ministry of Refugees and Repatriation of Afghanistan (MRRA) is monitoring the voluntary, dignified and gradual nature of returns and focuses on the provision of key physical, legal and material necessities linked to the reintegration process. MRRA, in partnership with UNHCR, provides individual assistance including the allocation of the repatriation and initial reinstallation cash grant which is complemented by reintegration programmes particularly in the sectors of shelter, water and income generation. These public programmes include:

  • Shelter assistance for the most vulnerable families
  • Allocation of land to landless returnees
  • Legal and employment individual assistance
  • Particular assistance to women and girls with the support of the Ministry of Women of Affairs (MOWA)

Mr. Chairman,

Insecurity is the main obstacle to the return of Afghan Refugees and their effective as well as sustainable reintegration. The majority of this year’s returnees have resettled in the eastern, central, or northern part of Afghanistan. The deterioration of the security situation in the south of Afghanistan caused by the terrorists activities of the Taliban and Al-Qaida have created difficult conditions for returnees and restricted the scope of humanitarian assistance, as justly mentioned in the Report of the High Commissioner for Refugees. We commend the work done by UNHCR staff operating under those difficult conditions and are deeply concerned about the prevailing insecurity in certain areas impeding the access of humanitarian assistance to the population, including the vulnerable returnees.

Moreover, the global rise in food prices, the current drought and approaching winter have resulted in high dependence on humanitarian assistance. The Afghanistan -UN joint appeal launched in January 2008 to address this issue asked for additional financial mobilization in response to the impending crisis. Thus far only 32% of our identified need has been met.

Mr. Chairman,

It is estimated that a total of some 540,000 Afghan refugees will return home in the next two years. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan and UNHCR will co-host an International Conference on return and reintegration on November 19 in Kabul. This conference aims to address how best to ensure the sustainable return of refugees and IDP’s and seeks to reconcile the repatriation targets and timelines proposed by the neighboring countries with the increasingly challenging operational environment in Afghanistan.

It will also be a forum to mobilize additional resources for a comprehensive, integrated approach and multi-year funding delivered through the framework of ANDS.

We would like to take this opportunity to invite Members States to participate to this conference at the highest level possible. We are looking forward to the outcomes of the conference and we invite the participants to take into consideration the following important issues in their discussion:

-       To incorporate Afghan refugees’ needs into ANDS through national development programmes particularly in key sectors such as health, education, sanitation and employment.

-       To ensure that areas to which refugees return are properly provided with basic amenities as well as the means for making a livelihood

-       To give priority to rural economies for future development programmes as a tool to achieve successful and sustainable return of refugees, bearing in mind that 80% of Afghanistan’s population lives in rural areas.

-       To keep the spirit of partnership and openness to look for a comprehensive solution to the question of Afghan refugee in order to make further progress towards an integrated and coherent solution, that will ensure the interests of Afghanistan, its neighbors and the region.

At the closing Mr. Chairman,

We would like to express our gratitude to the international community and other relevant UN agencies for their support to the plight of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons.  No sign of confidence in a country’s future is more compelling than the return of its citizens to participate in the upcoming Presidential election. Afghan refugees will not hesitate to return home if Afghanistan achieves to cement peace, security, prosperity and justice. We count on your continued support and remain committed to work together to fulfill our commitments made during the Paris Donor Conference in June 2008, to ensure the conditions for voluntary and sustainable returns of Afghans to their homeland.

Thank you for your attention.

Second Committee Debate on Countries in a Special Situation

Statement by Mr. Mohammad Wali Naeemi

Counselor, Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the United Nations

At the Second Committee Debate on Countries in a Special Situation

Madam Chairperson,

I have the honor to speak on behalf of my delegation on a significant agenda item of the Second Committee, “countries in special situations”. My delegation appreciates the hard work of the Office of the Under-Secretary General and High Representative for the Least Developed Countries , Landlocked and Small Island States. We thank Mr. Cheikh Sidi Diarra for his comprehensive introductory statement.

My delegation aligns itself with the statements of Antigua and Barbuda and Bangladesh on behalf of the G77 and China and the Group of Least Developed Countries, respectively.

Madam Chairperson,

The Brussels Programme of Action is a partnership framework between the LDCs and their development partners. It contains time-bound and measurable goals and has set out seven specific commitments, namely, poverty eradication, gender equality, employment, governance, capacity building, and sustainable development. These are seen as cross-cutting issues that should be addressed in the implementation process. There is no doubt that the achievement of these targets would mean the achievement of the MDGs by the LDCs. In order to fulfil their commitments as set out in the Brussels Programme of Action, the international community needs to take the necessary steps by supporting and equipping LDCs with the resources they need.

The Secretary General’s report on the LDCs highlighted progresses and achievements in the Least Developed Countries in the area of human development and good governance. However, significant challenges still need to be addressed. Increased poverty in the LDCs and the global financial crisis have multiplied the challenges of the least developed countries, in particular the post-conflict LDCs such as Afghanistan. Lack of security, a weak infrastructure, and insufficient capacities are primarily responsible for that.

The emergence and acceleration of the crisis has further increased the challenges of LDCs meeting the IADGs, including the MDGs. Such a scenario, no doubt, warrants increased global action if we want to secure the implementation of the Brussels Programme of Action by 2010, which is only two years from now.

The LDCs are highly vulnerable to both internal and external shocks. The world is passing through a critical time and the most vulnerable countries are LDCs, LLDCs, and post conflict countries. The continuation of the food crisis, financial crises and other challenges in the LDCs will hinder developmental velocity. LDCs are not in a position to weather further shocks such as a decline in exports, investment and access to capital that the current crises may potentially cause in the long run. Comprehensive and decisive policy action is critically important at all levels to overcome the current multiple crises.

The food crisis alone will drive millions of people into poverty and hunger. The LDCs are the hardest hit, particularly the landlocked LDCs and those LDCs which are emerging from conflicts. The comprehensive framework for action submitted by the Secretary General’s Task Force needs to be carefully examined with special attention to LDCs, particularly vulnerable LDCs in Africa and Asia.

In addition, food and livelihood security in LDCs will be seriously affected by climate change. Urgent and decisive action is needed to address the climate change. The international community should provide necessary funds in a predictable manner to meet the adaptation needs of the LDCs.

The importance of the agricultural sector in the economies of the LDCs can not be overstated. Agriculture is critically important for many LDCs. It contributes significantly to their national income, employment and rural development. Regrettably, this sector remains the most underdeveloped due to weak infrastructure, lack of capacity and access to adequate energy and technology. In addition to that, the prices of the agricultural products are generally low and volatile in the international market. Unless these are addressed, a number of LDCs, particularly those are emerging from conflicts, will not be able to achieve the internationally-agreed-upon development goals.

Nevertheless, this sector remains underdeveloped in countries in special situations. Agricultural productivity in the LDCs continues to decline. We need to scale-up investment and provide modern technologies to this sector to enhance agricultural production.

International trade has assumed a central place in the global development process. It’s clear that exports from LDCs are facing increasing challenges. We welcome the offer of duty-free and quota-free market access by some developed and developing countries and invite others to follow similar path. In recent years, South-South trade, often coined as the new geography in trade, has significantly increased. Nevertheless, LDCs, which are marginalized in North-South trade, are also increasingly marginalized in South-South trade.

Trade capacity-building of the LDCs is urgently needed. The Aid for Trade initiative should particularly support the LDCs in addressing their supply-side constraints and erosion of preferences. The accession process of the LDCs, particularly those that are currently in process to the WTO, should be simplified.

We have noted with concern that the special circumstances of the LDCs are not finding adequate reflection in relevant reports of the Secretary General. It is acutely important to analyze the status of progress in the LDCs on a sectoral basis.

Madam Chair,

My delegation attaches great importance to the final review of the Brussels Program of Action, which will begin shortly, and to the outcome of the 4th UN Conference on LDCs. These will further identify obstacles, constraints, challenges and emerging issues that require affirmative actions and initiatives to overcome. Hopefully, the outcome of the Conference will be a new framework for partnership for sustainable development and economic growth of the least developed countries that will assist LDCs to integrate progressively into the world economy.

I thank you Madam Chairperson.