Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Agriculture development and food security

Statement delivered by, Mr. Enayet Madani, Counsellor

At the Second Committee

Debate on Agenda Item 60: Agriculture development and food security
on behalf of H.E. Zahir Tanin


Mr. Chairman,

I would first like to thank you for convening this meeting, and align myself with the statement delivered by distinguished delegate of Sudan on behalf of the G77 and China my delegation as well voice a support for the statement delivered by distinguished representative of Nepal on behalf of LDCs I take this opportunity to thank the UN secretary General for his report on agriculture development and food security. I would also like to thank the UN system, and particularly the World Food Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization for their continued aid and support to Afghanistan. We also appreciate their efforts in research and development, as well as technical assistance on global agriculture and food security.

We welcome the recent L’Aquila Initiative on Global Food Security which both prioritizes the urgency of addressing food security, agriculture, and food price trends in developing countries, such as Afghanistan, and acknowledges the importance of continued financial and technical assistance. We recognize and are thankful to those who have taken the lead to keep food security challenges at the top of the global agenda.

Afghanistan once had a very abundant and robust agricultural economy and was a self-sufficient producer of wheat, fruits, nuts, barley, sugarcane, and wool, before conflict engulfed the country. Today, our agricultural productivity has significantly declined, necessary physical infrastructure has been destroyed, and droughts and price fluctuations have created food shortages and left millions of Afghans starving. It is of the utmost importance that we restore our agricultural sector to what is once was, while also ensuring its sustainability by adapting to new environmental and political circumstances.

Although only 12% of Afghanistan’s land is fertile for agriculture, eighty percent of our country’s population lives in rural areas and is dependent on sustenance farming for survival and livelihood. Furthermore, agriculture accounts for half of Afghanistan’s Gross Domestic Product and thus is closely linked to our economic growth. However, war has left much of our population, particularly farmers, dependent on international assistance. Thus, it is vital to continue humanitarian assistance and create food safety nets for those most vulnerable, while at the same time re-structuring and investing in our agricultural sector so self-sufficiency can be achieved.

Mr. Chairman

In the past few years, we have experienced some of the worst droughts in Afghanistan’s history. In 2008 and 2009, droughts led to a 60% reduction in wheat production from the previous year. Increasing water scarcity affects both rain-fed and irrigated lands. While 40% of the sector has irrigation systems, many of these irrigation systems were largely destroyed during the past few decades of war. More pressing, 85% of our irrigated land is dependent on water from the mountains, which are sensitive to climate change and shifting rainfall patterns.

As a result of conflict and draught, malnutrition in Afghanistan is a growing problem. An average of 50% of children under 3 are moderately or severely stunted from poor nutrition, and 80-90% of households are considered to have very poor dietary diversity. This prohibits us from achieving the first Millennium Development Goal without substantial efforts to restructure of our agricultural sector with the support of the international community.

Mr. Chairman,

Small farmers and women, those who are most vulnerable to political and economic instability, must be at the center of our food and agriculture policy. Women bear the responsibility of providing food and nutrition to the family, and are critical to successfully tackling food security issues. Farmers, particularly small landowners must have access to financing and technology, so agriculture can be a viable source of their livelihoods. Farmers, civil society groups, and the government all play a vital role in ensuring these plans are implemented.

To re-build Afghanistan’s agricultural sector, and ensure food security, several key steps are necessary:

First, we need to improve our agricultural productivity without succumbing to wasteful or unsustainable agricultural practices. This includes improving water conservation and minimizing soil and ecosystem degradation. Food security can only occur with sustainable usage of water and natural resources.

Second, Afghanistan’s agriculture sector demands more research on and funding for drought resistant crops and seed varieties to build our resiliency against climate change and volatile price fluctuations. Technology transfer can play a role in achieving this.

Third, our infrastructure must be re-built, with the support of the international community. Rehabilitation of water wells, reservoirs, and irrigation technologies is a first step in re-building our physical systems. This will also ensure socioeconomic development as it has also been found that poverty rates tend to be higher in areas lacking irrigation, demonstrating the strong connection between agriculture and Afghan livelihoods.

Fourth, policies for food pricing should be established. In the beginning of 2008, FAO index of prices spiked, increasing by 40% and leading to severe food shortages in Afghanistan. High food prices and corresponding food shortages require emergency food assistance. Safety nets during these times must be established so the most vulnerable sectors of our society do not suffer the fallouts of unstable food and financial markets

Mr. Chairman

As the reconstruction of Afghanistan continues, we see an enormous opportunity to secure our food resources and restore our position as a self-sufficient agricultural producer. Reducing hunger and stabilizing our food security is closely tied with women’s rights, poverty alleviation, and economic growth. We also see the opportunity to increase Afghan farmers’ capability to adapt agricultural practices in response to climate change and economic conditions. We ask the World Food Programme, USDA, FAO and other funders continue aiding us in overcoming the obstacles Afghanistan faces, and for the international community as a whole to continue supporting and collaborating with us on achieving food security.

Thank you Mr. Chairman.

” Report of the SG on the countries in special situations (LDCS and LLDCs)

Statement delivered by, Mr. M. Wali Naeemi, Minister Counsellor,

before the Second Committee

On Agenda Item 56 :Group of Countries in special situation(a) Third United Nations Conference on the Least Developed  Countries ; and (b) ; Specific actions related to the special needs and problems of Land Locked  Developing Countries and Transit developing Countries and Donner Countries and International Financial and Development Institution and Transit transport cooperation

on behalf of H.E. Zahir Tanin

Mr. Chairman,

Distinguished Delegates,

It’s a great honor to deliver the statement on behalf of the Afghanistan delegation to the United Nations on this very important agenda item 56Aand B, of the UGA64 , 2nd committee.

I would like to align my statement with the statements put forth by the distinguished representatives of Sudan on behalf of the G77 and China and Nepal on behalf of the Least Developed Countries.

Mr. Chairman,

The Afghanistan delegation thanks the Secretary General for his informative report presented under the agenda item 56(a) and 56(b). The report provides a good basis for our discussions under this important agenda item. The consideration of this agenda item provides an opportunity to review the circumstances of countries in special situations with particular focus on the LDCs, LLDCs and countries emerging from conflicts.

We also commend the Under Secretary General, Mr. Cheick Sidi Diarra, for his tired work in regards to least developed countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island states.

The SG report on item 56A and B, clearly point to the gaps in the implementation of commandments made to address the development challenges face by the LDC and LLDCS. Unfortunate the new emerging crisis (financial crisis food crisis, emery crisis and other crisis) multiply the challenges of countries in special situations and undermine the implementation of the agendas.

Mr. Chairman,

The Brussels Programme of Action provides specific goals and targets in seven critically important areas: Fostering a people centered policy framework; good governance at the national and international levels; building human and institutional capacities; building productive capacities to make globalization work for LDCs; enhancing the role of trade in development; reducing vulnerabilities and protecting the environment; and, finally, mobilizing financial resources. Afghanistan believes that these are necessary components required to help LDCs navigate the path of sustained growth and stability.

Since 2001, the government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, with partnership of the international community, has taken very important steps towards achieving the goals of the Programme.

Despite lack of security, shameless terrorist attacks on schools, teachers, government and public institutions, significant progress have been taking place in different areas in Afghanistan:

– Nearly 7 million children are back to school, of which roughly one-third are girls.

– Roughly 85% of Afghans have access to basic health services, and the rate of infant and maternal mortality has been reduced by 85,000 and 40,000 annually.

– In 2008, 343 community water points were constructed in the drought hit and conflict-affected parts of southern Afghanistan.

-More than seven million people have access to communication facilities at the national level.

-The Government of Afghanistan has taken numerous initiatives to prevent environmental degradation.

However, Afghanistan as a least developed, Land Locked and post conflict country, faces multiple challenges:

-          Lack of security is the major challenge, particularly in the southern part of the country.

-          Only 23% of the entire population has access to safe drinking water

-          Close to 900 children under the age of 5 die daily and more than 60 women die every day from pregnancy-related complications.

-          600 schools are still being closed in the south and southwest provinces.

Afghanistan remains one of the poorest countries in the world, with an estimated 22 million Afghans – representing 70% of the population – living in poverty.

Poverty and unemployment, both of which have contributed to the increase of the insecurity in the country, can jeopardize the gains made in the last 7 years.

Mr. Chairman,

Though we believe in the path that the Brussels Programme of Action has paved, we fear that it is being undermined by such phenomena as the global economic crisis and climate change, as well as by a lack of commitment and implementation by the international community. It is hoped that we can continue to address these issues as we move closer to the 4th UN Conference to be convened in Turkey in 2011. In this regard, my delegation extends gratitude to the generous offer to the government of Turkey. We are confident that the fourth United Nations conference on the least development countries will play a crucial role in restoring the momentum of development to the poorest people, will undertake a comprehensive review of the implementation of international support measures, and chalk out a road map for further actions to advance the development needs and concerns of LDCs.

Mr. Chairman,

We appreciate the recognition in the Secretary General’s report regarding the unique and difficult position that many landlocked developing countries are currently in. Yet, we also recognize that our geographic characteristics are not going to change, and we must make the best use of what we have. For instance, Afghanistan now has an exceptional opportunity to realize its potential as a “land bridge” country between Central Asia, South Asia, and the West Asian regions. We are aware of our responsibilities to work with our neighbors towards policies and institutional mechanisms to translate this potential into concrete regional projects. But, we would like to encourage others in the international community to work with us with similar pace and spirit.

While Afghanistan is amongst the LDCs and LLDCs, it also in a post conflict situation that lends too many additional problems. Being is such a situation, we urge the UN system, international organizations, and the international community to assist Afghanistan in the area of financial and technical support, capacity building, and development assistance and building infrastructure in order to achieve the goals of the Brussels Programme of Action, Almaty Programme of Action and the Millinium Development Goals within their time frame.

I thank you for your attention.

“The Rule of Law at the National and International Levels”

Statement by, Mr. Mohammad  Erfani Ayoob,

Minister  Counsellor

Permanent Mission of Afghanistan to the United Nations

On Agenda  Item 83

“The Rule of Law at the National and International Levels”

on behalf of H.E. Zahir Tanin

Mr. Chairman,

At the outset, my delegation wishes to thank the Secretary General for his annual report A/64/298 on strengthening and coordinating UN Rule of Law activities submitted pursuant to GA resolution 63/128.

This first report, which builds upon various principal UNGA resolutions where my country Afghanistan also has been mentioned, illustrates the key achievements, identifies the areas in need of more action and highlights the implementations process of the SGs recommendations made last year. We associate our self with the statements made by Iran on behalf NAM.

Mr. Chairman,

Afghanistan strongly adheres to the rule of law both at the national and international level.

My delegation welcomes the establishment of the Rule of Law Coordination and Resource Group and the Rule of Law Unit and looks forward to further steps to implement the Joint Strategic Plan for 2009-2011.

We appreciate the fact that the  efforts to ensure the overall coordination and coherence on the UN engagement by Rule of Law Coordination and Resource Group , chaired by Deputy Secretary General  and supported by the Rule of Law Unit , have continued to enhance the UN’s Rule of Law assistance . However there is still more need to be done to ensure the central coordinating and leadership role of UN in the field of capacity building in the post conflict countries  and  move towards and assist countries to develop their national laws to incorporate, appropriate, international norms and  standards .

Mr. Chairman,

The rule of law must be strengthened at all levels – national, international and institutional levels.

We see promotion of the rule of law as an essential tool for ensuring peace and security, good governance, sustainable development, social progress and human rights for all.

Strengthening the rule of law at the international level is critical to effectively address global challenges. The promotion of rule of law at the international level is fundamental in promoting democracy, human rights, sustainable development, peace full co-existence and cooperation among states, fighting international crime and terrorism, and promoting justice and peace, especially in post conflict societies. In this regard, support for capacity building in the developing countries is crucial so that they can fulfill their obligations at the national level effectively.

One of the important aspects of the promotion of rule of law at international level is the implementation by states at the national level of the obligations taken by them under international treaties and agreements and my country is committed to the requirement in respect of the treaties to which it is a party.

Mr. Chairman,

The justice sector like any other sector in Afghanistan had suffered greatly as result of more than two decades of war and terrorist attacks. The Justice Sector physical infrastructure had demolished either wholly or partially. The working capacity had significantly dropped off and the rule of law was seriously weakened.

For the last seven years since the international community committed itself to Afghanistan major results have been achieved on the area of Rule of Law and Justice. In the frame work he London Afghanistan Compact and the Afghan National Development Strategy (ANDS) , the National Justice Sector Strategy and the National Justice Programme, as the basis of a collaborative and strategic nationally led justice reform process have been established.

In order to improve the  Rule of Law in the national level Afghanistan with the support by International Community has taken necessary steps to develop the human and institutional capacity of the justice sector, increase access to justice, particularly for women, improve good Governance , fight corruption and build a Security forces .

The United Nations, donor Countries and non-governmental organizations are playing a commendable role to support the Government of Afghanistan in restoring and improving of justice and the rule of law in Afghanistan.

In conclusion Mr., Chairman,

This agenda item initialed “The Rule of Law at the National International Levels ” is an important subject for my delegation.

For Afghanistan, rule of law at the international level is intrinsically linked to rule of law at the domestic level. Its promotion is dependent on commitment of all UN Member States to the principles enshrined in the UN Charter as well as in other international instruments, such as peace, stability, governance, and development.

The  United Nations  in particular the General Assembly must play a central role in promoting and coordinating the efforts towards the strengthening the Rule of Law at the National and International levels .

Thank you