Friday, September 19, 2014

Ambassador Tanin Chaired the 344th Meeting of the Committee on the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People at the UN Headquarters in NY

Palestinian Rights Committee Will Continue Calls on Security Council,   Others to Hold Israel Accountable for Its Actions, Chair Pledges

 Palestine’s Permanent Observer Outlines Developments

 As Secretariat Officials Detail Deteriorating Humanitarian, Legal Situations

Press Release

Expressing serious concern over a deteriorating humanitarian situation, as well as evictions and demolitions of homes, the Committee on the Exercise of the Inalienable Rights of the Palestinian People would continue to call on the Security Council and the High Contracting Parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention to hold Israel accountable, its Chair said today.

 

Zahir Tanin ( Afghanistan) voiced particular concern over the plan recently announced by the Government of Israel to evict Palestinian residents from eight villages in the south Mount Hebron area to make way for army training zones.  Israel continued its settlement announcements, publishing tenders for 171 new units in East Jerusalem, he said, condemning the continuing demolition of homes and violent attacks against Palestinians by Israeli settlers.

 

Summarizing developments in the region since the Committee’s 12 June meeting, Mr. Tanin recalled that violence had escalated around Gaza in June and July.  Rockets and mortars had been fired into Israel, and the Israeli Army had conducted airstrikes and incursions into Gaza, killing nine Palestinians and injuring 54 more.  Additionally, a committee led by retired Supreme Court Justice Edmond Levy had published a Government-commissioned report which claimed that the Israeli presence in the West Bank was not a military occupation and recommending the legalization of existing settlement outposts.

 

Ambassador Zahir Tanin Permanent Representative of Afghanistan to the United Nations

He went on to note that the Palestinian Authority faced acute challenges to remain solvent.  It had only been able to pay part of the June and July salaries of 150,000 employees, and expected a $1 billion budget shortfall for 2012, he said, adding that, during its 22 July meeting in Doha, the Arab League Follow-up Committee for the Arab Peace Initiative had supported Palestinian plans to seek further recognition at the United Nations without specifying a concrete timeline.  During a briefing to the Council on 25 July, United Nations Special Coordinator Robert Serry had expressed concern that developments on the ground were undermining prospects for a two-State solution, as well as ongoing attempts to reach agreement between Israel and the Palestinians on a package of confidence-building measures to pave the way for a resumption of high-level contacts.

 

Riyad Mansour, Permanent Observer of Palestine to the United Nations, said that an emergency meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement’s Committee on Palestine scheduled for 5 and 6 August in Ramallah had been scrapped after the Israeli Government’s banning of Foreign Ministers from Indonesia, Malaysia, Cuba, Nigeria and Bangladesh from entering the territory to attend the gathering.  The Committee had condemned that action in a communiqué and decided to send the “Ramallah Declaration” of support for upgrading Palestinian United Nations membership to the Movement’s Tehran Summit, scheduled for later this month.

 

“This action by Israel is not going to weaken our collective resolve to continue to have more countries recognize the State of Palestine,” he stressed.  Moreover, a League of Arab States ministerial meeting on 5 September would discuss the timetable for enhancing Palestine’s status in the United Nations system, including through the Security Council, the General Assembly and other agencies of the world body.

 

Mr. Mansour noted that Palestine had participated as a State in the just-concluded Tenth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, which was important considering that Israel was attempting to change the names of Palestinian sites that had been in existence for hundreds of years.  During the United Nations Asian and Pacific Meeting in Support of Israeli-Palestinian Peace, held in Bangkok on 10 and 11 July, Thailand’s Foreign Minister had announced that the Thai and Palestinian ambassadors would formally establish diplomatic relations and exchange credentials on 1 August, he added.

 

Afterwards, Saleumxay Kommasith (Lao People’s Democratic Republic) presented the Chair’s Summary of the Bangkok meeting, of which the Committee took note.

 

Today’s meeting also featured a detailed briefing on the humanitarian impact of settlement construction and of forced displacement in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, delivered in three parts.

 

Janique Thoele of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, delivered the first briefing, saying the impact of settlement activity could be seen in four areas:  demolitions and evictions; forced displacement; restricted movement and access to services; and settler violence and harassment.  All that amounted to a “protection crisis” with serious humanitarian consequences, she said, adding that the crisis had been occasioned by a failure to respect human rights and humanitarian law.

 

Presenting a brief slide show spotlighting the impacts of the occupation, she pointed out the effects of displacement, infrastructure demolition and ongoing settlement activity on the geography and physical character of the Occupied Palestinian Territory, which was dotted with myriad restricted zones and physical obstacles to movement.  Although settlements were illegal under international law, twice as many Israeli settlers as Palestinians lived in “Area C” today, she added.

 

Turning to the West Bank and Israel’s ongoing construction of the separation wall, she said that the structure, which the International Court of Justice had ruled should be torn down, continued to hamper Palestinian access to resources.  While Israel had a right to protect its security, it must respect international law, she emphasized.  The situation was also particularly dire for farmers who owned land located in the “seam zone” and required special permits allowing access to their land through special gates, only a few of which were open every day.  The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs was also seriously concerned because the barrier prevented Palestinian citizens from seeking specialized health care, especially as some areas required them to obtain special permits.

 

In the last decade, more than 4,000 Palestinians, half of them children, had been displaced due to home demolitions, she said, adding that a total of 620 homes were demolished in 2001.  Palestinians in Area C could build homes and other structures on only 1 per cent of the land, while construction was prohibited outright on 70 per cent.  Meanwhile, Israeli settlements occupied 24.5 kilometres in East Jerusalem, while Palestinian construction took just 9.5 kilometres.  Some 200,000 Palestinians were not connected to the water network and relied on tinkered water.  They faced restricted movement, as well as access to education, health, water and sanitation services.  In the West Bank, 20 per cent of the population lived in poverty, 55 per cent were food insecure and 28 per cent were malnourished.

 

Turning to the occupation’s humanitarian impact, she said almost 500 Palestinians had been killed and 9,000 injured since 2005.  Settler violence, including physical attacks and damage to property, had increased by 165 per cent from 2009 to 2011, and 83 Palestinians communities were vulnerable to settler violence.  Settlers largely acted with impunity, she said, adding that more than 90 per cent of complaints alleging settler violence were closed without indictment.

 

Noting also Israel’s new trend of confiscating external humanitarian aid intended for the Palestinians, she said that since 2011, Israeli authorities had destroyed more than 150 donor-funded structures such as water tanks and tents.  Beginning in March 2012, it had impounded relief supplies even before they were delivered to the communities in need, she said, calling for effective law enforcement against settler violence, revision of an unfair zoning and planning regime, and enabling the humanitarian community to meet basic Palestinian needs.

 

Antonia Mulvey of the Norwegian Refugee Council, discussing legal matters, said the international community had resoundingly denounced Israel’s settlement construction, as evidenced by some 12 United Nations resolutions.  For example, Security Council resolution 465 (1980) explicitly called on Israel to dismantle its settlements and cease all construction.  Further, the International Court of Justice’s Advisory Opinion on the legal implications of the separation wall’s construction also stated that settlements were a “flagrant violation” of international law.  The 2004 decision also noted that parties to the Fourth Geneva Convention were obliged to ensure Israel’s compliance with international law.

 

Spotlighting other legal precedents rejecting Israel’s settlement activity, she cited specific articles of The Hague Regulations and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.  Yet, Israel did not recognize the overall applicability of the Fourth Geneva Convention to the Occupied Palestinian Territory, and did not view its destruction of Palestinian infrastructure and removal of Palestinians from their lands as a “forced population transfer”, proscribed under that treaty.  She added that the Israeli Government provided tax and other incentives for settlers, thought to include housing infrastructure amounting to some $240 million, none of which was made available to Palestinians.

 

Ambassador Zahir Tanin Permanent Representative of Afghanistan to the United Nations

While international law was very clear that settlements were illegal, she continued, Israel had adopted national legislation that delineated the basis under which such construction could be legal:  through political decision; State land only; lawfully designed building scheme; and boundaries decided by a military order.  Moreover, there was a clear dual legal system in place, she said, explaining, for instance, that the case of a Palestinian alleged to have committed manslaughter in Area C would go through Israeli military courts, while allegations against an Israeli citizen, perhaps living right next door, would be handled by civilian courts.  Settlers were increasingly not brought before the courts and impunity was growing, she warned, citing Susiya village in the southern Hebron hills.  Home to 350 people, Israel’s High Court of Justice was considering it for demolition, she said, adding that advocacy could have a huge legal impact in preventing such injustices.

 

Amira Hassan of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) New York Office, said the West Bank was home to 771,000 registered Palestine refugees, a quarter of whom lived in one of 19 camps, and the rest in towns and villages.  At least 2,300 Bedouins, particularly in Area C, were under threat of displacement due to settlement construction plans announced in July 2011.  Much advocacy thus far had prevented plans to move one Bedouin community to a garbage dump, she said, adding that their inability to sell animal products threatened traditional Bedouins’ livelihoods.

 

She went on to state that the Israeli Government was moving rapidly forward with a plan to turn Al Walaja village, located nine kilometres south-west of the old city of Jerusalem, into a national park, which would force out its 2,000 Palestinian residents without any compensation.  The authorities had posted a notice in Hebrew giving residents 60 days to file objections to the plan, but all objections made by a local committee had been rejected.  Another case study pointed to the Burin cluster in Nablus, where Palestinians had no access to 7,500 dunums of land.  In 2011, there had been 70 incidents of property damage, the highest number recorded during that year, she said, adding that, on 19 May, a group of settlers had set fire to four or five Palestinian homes in Burin.

 

During a brief question-and-answer period, Indonesia’s representative announced that his Government was planning for next year a meeting on the role of the media and civil society in dealing with the Palestinian question.  He added that his delegation would be seeking advice from the Department of Public Information.

 

The representative of the United Arab Emirates said the briefings had starkly highlighted the “ugly picture” of Israel’s occupation.  Stressing that other events in the region must not distract the international community’s focus from the truly dire situation faced by the Palestinian people, he said the situation in the Occupied Palestinian Territory was bound to deteriorate as Israel’s illegal activities continued.

 

Deborah Seward, Director of the Strategic Communications Division in the Department of Public Information, reported on the United Nations Media Seminar on Peace in the Middle East, held in Geneva on 12 and 13 June.  The event had featured messages from United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and Wolfgang Amadeus Brulhart, Switzerland’s Assistant Secretary for the Middle East and North Africa, among other senior Government and United Nations officials, she said.  All participants in the Seminar — from Israel, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, the wider Middle East, Europe and the United States — had been encouraged to make use of social media such as Twitter and Tumblr, including ahead of the event and during its five panel discussions.

 

She said the discussions had focused on:  the prospects for peace approaching the twentieth anniversary of the Oslo Accords; how the Arab Spring had affected media coverage of the question of Palestine; the role of women’s activism and the media in promoting Israeli-Arab peace; civil society in media and film in the Middle East; and youth activism in the region, including evolving attitudes towards and tools for social change and democracy.  One of the Seminar’s main aims had been to focus on the Arab uprising and to explore their implications for the Palestinian question, she said.  Reflecting that theme, the Seminar’s organizers had made a specific effort to invite more women and youth to the event than in previous years, resulting in the youngest group of participants ever, as well as one all-female panel, another “first” for the Seminar.

 

Characterizing the discussions as “stimulating and challenging”, she went on to say that the panels had also benefited positively from the diverse experiences of the participants.  “The feedback we have received, both from the participants and from observers present at the Seminar, has been extremely positive,” she continued, noting that many participants had expressed appreciation of the opportunity to meet others face to face.  In at least one case known to the organizers, such opportunities had led to a group of journalists from different backgrounds and working in different areas to explore collaboration on a news story.  “So, in sum, we are extremely pleased and very encouraged by this year’s event,” she concluded.

 

Video

The Office of the President of Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Decree On the execution of content of the historical speech of June 21, 2012 in the special session of National Assembly

 

After years of political isolation, wars, and destruction, we, the people of Afghanistan, have witnessed great political, social, and economic success; we have established our appropriate position in the international community. Along with establishing broad international relations, we have been able to sign important strategic agreements with countries in the region and in the world.

Alongside those achievements, unfortunately, we were faced with challenges in the areas of governance, fights against corruption, law enforcement, and economic self sufficiency.

For this reason, on June 21 of the current year, in a speech to a special session of the National Assembly [parliament], I laid out existing shortcomings and problems, and talked about measures to be taken for the elimination of those problems.

For the purpose of succeeding in those areas, for eliminating existing problems, and for bringing necessary reforms in the three branches of the government, I am approving the following measures:

1st– Joint discussions among government organs:

1. Based on the framework of the constitution and with consideration for separation of powers, the three branches of the government are responsible for the implementation of duties and authorities. They should work and cooperate in such a way that at the end of every fiscal year their developmental expenses should not be less than 50 percent of the allocated budget. The executive branch is accountable to the president for its activities, and should report to him for its actions.

2. I request the Supreme Court of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to, in the course of six months, complete and finalize all dossiers currently in process within the judicial system, especially dossiers related to corruption, land usurpation, and chain-assassination.

3. I request the Supreme Court of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to, in the course of nine months, activate all inactive courts in the provinces and districts, and staff them with professional personnel.

4. I request the Supreme Court of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to, based on the timeframe determined in the law, simplify the judicial procedures for determining the destiny of the accused and suspects, and that the people should be informed of the results through media.

5. I am requesting the National Assembly, the highest legislative organ of the country, to consider the national interests of the Afghan nation and to exercise their duties and authorities in giving priority to a speedy implementation of realistic and legitimate proposals presented to them by the government. While watching the actions of the members of the government, they should help and cooperate with the government in the enforcing of law and timely implementation of developmental projects.

6. I request the National Assembly to, in the course of four and half months, rectify drafts of laws, executive orders, and agreements sent to them by the government.

7. High ranking government officials should separate themselves from supporting law breakers, criminals, and corrupt and guilty individuals. Judicial and law enforcement offices are ordered to take firm legal actions against those who get in the way of justice without considering their official position.

8: Within five months, members of the Cabinet must visit related regional centers at provincial and district levels in order to meet these areas’ needs. They must take measures to attend to their shortages and operational deficiencies. Then, they must report their findings to the Cabinet.

9. During the process of appointing qualified personnel, high ranking government officials must refrain from hiring based on intermediary recommendations. Administerial and state establishments are ordered to follow the rule of law when hiring civil servants in the judiciary, the prosecutors’ office, and universities.

10. Ministries and government administrations, including the judiciary organizations, are charged with the goal of attending to the problems [needs] of the people. They must prepare complete information, especially in provinces and districts, for the implementation of plans and procedures for completed tasks, major achievements, and the quality of their organization and personnel. Present the written report after confirmation and certification by the highest ranking authority in the center, and the verification of provincial governors, on the 28th and 29th of every month to the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs, and through the Cabinet Secretariat to the office of the president.

11. Judiciary agencies are ordered that no individual should be imprisoned, arrested, or placed under investigation without lawful rationale, or remain in prison for a longer period than his/her actual sentenced imprisonment. The Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Justice, and the office of the Attorney General are ordered to present a report of their actions to the office of the president every three months through the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet Secretariat.

12. The existence of unlawful weapons has caused the occurrence of bloodshed, bullying, illegal land confiscation, violations of human rights, breach of the decisions made by official organizations, and disturbances of order and justice. In order to eliminate these negative phenomena, under the disarmament program, the Defense and Interior Ministries and the General Directorate of National Security are charged with taking serious action throughout Afghanistan for collecting weapons. Introduce the violators and usurpers to the related agencies for further investigation. They must send their report to the office of the president through the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet Secretariat.

13. The Ministries of Defense, Interior, Labor, Social Affairs Martyrs and Disabled, and the National Security Directorate are ordered to urgently pay serious attention to observing the rights of their patrons, immediate treatment of the injured, and the preservation of the rights of the Afghan National Police, National Army, and national security martyrs. Every three months, provide a report about their operations to the Cabinet.

14. Within a month, the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs, Ministry of Finance, the Ministry of Economy, the Cabinet Secretariat, the Independent Commission for Administrative Reform and Social Services, and the office of the president are charged with investigating parallel institutions such as (PAD/PMU/PIU) and other structures that are temporarily operating per project basis. They must provide an explanation for these entities’ existence along with the original ministries and directorates, and present it to the Cabinet.

15. Once again, all state organizations and agencies are ordered to refrain from signing contracts for provision of services, with high ranking state officials and those appointed and supported by them. Such conduct would be considered a crime, and those committing it will be legally investigated by the office of the Attorney General.

16. As the provider of security and social order, the Attorney General must gain the trust of the entire population. Therefore, all prosecutors in the country are ordered to fulfill their duties in such a manner that it will demonstrate reform. Their conduct must become the impetus for reform among government employees and members of the society. In this regard, it is the duty of the High Office of Oversight and Anticorruption, ANP’s Department of Criminal Investigation, National Security Directorate, and the Financial Inspection Directorate to help with the Office of the Attorney General. They must do so, not only as a parallel institution, but as an assistant. They must help concerning criminal documents, providing evidence, and in the process of obtaining elucidations. They must identify the violators of law and introduce them to the Attorney General for judicial investigation.

17. For the purpose of providing proper public services to the citizens, until election conditions are provided for municipalities, from now on, the process of appointing mayors will be conducted through the procedure for the selection of high-ranking positions, and by the recommendation of the Special Board of Councils and the Independent Directorate of Local Governance (IDLG). Within three months, IDLG is ordered to appoint provincial and major district chiefs by introducing eligible, honest, and professional individuals through the Board of Appointments.

18. The Interior, Higher Education, Information and Culture, Hajj and Pilgrimage, and the Education Ministries–with cooperation by the Council of Scholars, Imams of mosques, religious scholars, students, and intellectuals–are ordered to invite people for helping to achieve national unity, social consensus, friendship, brotherhood, peace and reconciliation, as well as virtue. They must seriously prevent those propaganda and programs which are contrary to social etiquette and order, causing the youth to deviate, creating negative perceptions within the society.

19. Advisors to the president play the role of a bridge between the office of the president and the people. Therefore, they must work to convey the opinions and suggestions of the people to the government, and strengthen this relationship. On a monthly basis, they must send a report about their operations to the office of the president through the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet Secretariat.

2nd– The Ministry of Defense is charged with the following:

1. Within two months, with assistance by the Ministries of Finance, Economy, and Justice, it must revisit its provisional affairs. Clear and complete mechanisms must be organized and presented to the Cabinet.

2. Within three months, clarify and organize a just policy concerning promotions, appointments, and transfers; then report to the office of the president.

3. Within three months, foreign foundations that are included in the transition process, prepare an explanation, documentation, and registration of their properties, tools, and weapons. Following ratification by the Cabinet, practice it when taking over the responsibilities.

4. Within three months, in accordance with international agreements, engage in discussions with the United States, and with NATO members concerning Air Force Armament needs; present a report about achievements to the National Security Council and to the Cabinet.

5. Within six months, reexamine the plan for the settlement of forces in light of a detailed arrangement. Every two months, provide a report about the results of this operation to the National Security Council, and to the Cabinet.

6. Include the transition of the Bagram prisoners in operational priorities, and properly complete [the transition] prior to the predetermined deadline.

7. In accordance with proper conditions, promotions of staff, up to the rank of Colonel, must take place prior to 18 Aug 2012.

3rd– The Interior Ministry is Ordered to:

1. Within two months, act on those orders of the court regarding the confiscation of the public and private properties that are finalized, and conveyed to the Ministry of Interior. Send a report about its achievements to the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet Secretariat.

2. Reassess the organization of the regional police within three months. In accordance with the former [existing] resolutions of the National Security Council, integrate parallel groups and structures with the regional police. Present a report to the Cabinet.

3. Within three months, should report to the Cabinet about living conditions in the country’s prisons and detention centers, and about human rights.

4. Within three months, should report to the Cabinet about information technology and with help of the Ministry of Communication the application of the first phase of electronic ID.

5. Within six months, should present a plan about the improvement of the operations of Kabul traffic police to the Cabinet, with the cooperation of Kabul municipality.

6. Within six months, in light of the detailed plan for transition process, review the plan of settling forces and report every two months to the National Security Council and the Cabinet.

7. The promotion of personnel to the rank of Colonel according to conditions outlined should be finalized before 18th of August.

8. According to the former presidential orders and decisions, the complete dissolving of private security companies and send a report about their belongings to the Ministry of Interior, in the quickest time.

4th–The Foreign Ministry is Ordered to:

1. Within three months, should present to the Cabinet the list of those Ministries who have disobeyed international treaties, and tangible legal violations of all laws, more than two times.

2. Within three months, should present to the office of the president a decision and mechanism for employing diplomats, reassess their qualifications, and particular proposals for improvement.

3. Within six months, should present to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to assess the cooperation of all political offices outside the country (educational, cultural, transportation, military and all related offices) with connected organs.

5th–The Ministry of Justice is Ordered to:

1. Within two months, activate the legal translation board for contracts, treaties, and other international documents.

2. Within three months, with the cooperation of Directorate of the Administrative Affairs and Cabinet Secretariat and the Civil Services Administrative Improvements’ Independent Commission should review the law of the Government Fundamental Organizations and send their report to the Cabinet.

3. Within two months, the procurement law should complete the reviewed plan processes.

4. Within two months, the election law should be completed and should be sent to the Cabinet for approval.

5. Within six months, the municipalities’ law and the Office of the Attorney General law should be completed and presented to the Cabinet.

6th–The Office of the Attorney General is Ordered to:

1. Within one month, all the detainees should be assessed by their prosecutor’s offices, detentions without tangible reasons should be stopped and in the detention centers the list of the detainees together with the explanation for accusations be prepared and sent to the Judiciary Committee.

2. From the date of the promulgation of this decree, the proposal for the provincial prosecutor’s director’s appointments, like the appointments of the Ministries and other offices, should be presented to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

3. Within two months, with the help of the Ministry of Justice, the Attorney General’s office and the Ministry of Justice, in order to attend to the dossiers, should distinguish their duties and send their report to the Cabinet.

4. Within two months, the supervisory office of the prosecutor should be formed, or this authority should be passed to the supervisory office of the High Court and a special plan should be presented to the Cabinet.

5. Within six months, with the cooperation of the Ministry of Justice, the alternative to imprisonment plan should be prepared and presented to the Cabinet.

6. Within six months, the inactive prosecution offices in the districts should be activated by employment of professional personnel.

7. Within six months, the Prosecutor General’s office should assess all professional and supportive personnel, recognize the corrupt cadres, employ separate measures, and report to the office of the president.

7th–The High Office of Oversight and Anti-corruption is Ordered to:

1. Within two months, governmental offices and private sectors should take the criterion of the strategy for fight against corruption under supervision, and present their results to the office of the president.

2. Within six months, private institutions’ and government official’s suspicious wealth should be assessed and the report of their findings sent to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan every two months.

3. Within six months, assess all professional and supportive personnel offices, recognize corrupt officials, make specific recommendations, and present their results to the office of the president.

8th–The Independent Directorate of Local Governance is Ordered to:

1. Within a month, the posts of the governors should be assessed and their necessary improvements and specific proposals should be presented to the office of the president.

2. Within two months, the posts of the deputies to the provinces, with help of the Independent Commission for Administrative Improvement and Civilian Services, should be opened for free competition and hence patriotic, sincere, well qualified and suitable cadres employed.

3. Within three months, the draft of municipalities law and other legislative documents with the aim of traversing the stages, should be sent to the Ministry of Justice.

4. Within six months, the shortage of provincial organizations should be completed with suitable cadres from the Ministries and governmental offices.

5. Within six months, with help of the Ministries of Economic, Home Affairs, and Finance Ministry and other related foundations outline a mechanism so that the provincial reconstruction teams’ activities should be replaced with the present governmental organizations, and presented to the Cabinet.

6. During the years 2013 and 2014, with the cooperation of the Home Affairs and Finance Ministries, the administrative buildings for district officers and security commanders should be completed.

9th–The Directorate of the Administrative Affairs and the Secretariat of the Cabinet is Ordered to:

1. Within two months, prepare and organize the plan for the government official trips and should present it to the Cabinet.

1. Make a list of unimplemented resolutions and presidential decrees and orders from the era of the transitional government to the present, specified by offices and Ministries and present it to the Cabinet within two months.

2. In cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Affairs, assess the professional coordination between the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation and the Ministry of Energy and Power on the issue of water and present a specific plan to the Cabinet within two months.

3. Assess professional collaboration between the Ministry of Water and Energy and Afghanistan Power Corporation, in cooperation with the Ministry of Economic Affairs, and present the results about the solution for saving electricity together with a specific plan to the cabinet within two months.

4. Reassess the government organizational structure in cooperation with the Independent Commission for Administrative Reforms and Public Services, and present the draft proposal of parallel organizations’ reform, mentioning the deletions, mergers, and specific instances to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan within three months.

5. Prepare a list of the individuals who have earned a Master’s degree and degrees higher than Master’s abroad, and are ready to serve in the government, and take appropriate action after obtaining instructions from the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan within three months.

6. In cooperation with the Ministry of Justice, create the policy of obtaining continued benefits for the government officials who retire after serving in the government, and present it to the cabinet within three months.

10th– Ministry of Hajj and Pilgrimage is Assigned to:

1. Arrange at least ten educational courses for increasing the capacity of Imams and improving guidance affairs, and present its report to the Cabinet within two months.

2. Submit a plan for determining, returning, and developing endowed properties, and the process of utilizing its revenue to the Cabinet within three months.

3. Make efforts to better organize the process of obligatory and Umrah [can be performed anytime during the year] Hajj.

11th– The Independent Commission of Administrative Reforms and Public Services is assigned to:

1. Present a report about the details of implementation and need for CBR [Community Based Rehabilitation] and similar projects to the Cabinet within one month.

2. Reassess the structure of the commission and the appointment of the entire staff, including the appointing board commissioners and the High Directorate of Public Services, and present specific plans about the internal reforms in the Independent Commission of Administrative Reforms and Public Services considering high standards and minimum requirements of employment in the key positions of the commission to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan within one month.

3. Determine the date of the first general examination aimed at recruiting young cadre, and announce the mechanism for the examination through the media.

4. Within three months, present a comprehensive plan for adding the office of Deputy Minister for Professional Immunity and Public Services for Government Employees to the Cabinet.

12th– Independent Elections Commission is Assigned to:

1. Prepare the plan for registering names [of candidates] for presidential elections in the year 2014, and present it to the Cabinet within one month.

2. Prepare an organized and transparent election platform that guarantees people’s participation, and create a comprehensive schedule for presidential, parliamentary and provincial council elections within three months.

13th– The Ministry of Education is assigned to:

1. Arrange at least four short-term courses aimed at increasing the capacity of 40 thousand teachers, and present the report to the Cabinet within three months.

2. Expand the sustainment and monitoring policies of foundations of education on national and local levels, and present them to the Cabinet within three months.

3. Start evaluating all private and public schools and take serious action against schools that violate the educational polices of the country, or whose instructional qualities are substandard, within six months.

4. Present to the Cabinet the plan for creating a specific administrative unit for the purpose of promoting all the affairs of vocational education, including the foundations of secondary instruction and technical colleges in cooperation with the Ministries of Labor and Social Affairs Martyrs and Disabled, and Higher Education within six months.

5. Take action regarding recruiting 11,000 new teachers and staff through free competition and talent acquisition among qualified teachers and professors in the capital of the nation and the provinces, and present a monthly report to the Cabinet within six months.

6. Within six months, increase the number of teacher support centers for teacher training at district level from 111 to 180 in order to provide training opportunities to female teachers in rural areas.

7. In order to boost patriotism, with the commencement of the 2013 academic year include the subject of love of country to the curriculum of all public and private schools and monitor its proper instruction.

14th– The Ministry of Higher Education is assigned to:

1. Complete the mechanism for taking the college entrance examination and present it to the Cabinet for approval within three months.

2. In cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, address the problems of Afghan students abroad, and present its specific proposal for providing practical solutions to their problems within three months.

3. Within six months, start evaluating all private higher education institutions, and take action for the purpose of standardization regarding those who are operating against the higher education policies, or whose quality of instruction is substandard.

4. Present a specific plan to the Cabinet within six months for starting English language instruction in medicine and engineering schools of all universities starting the academic year 2013.

5. Examine the need for taking a government exam for graduates of private universities; provide a specific plan if required, and if not required, provide reasons to the Cabinet. within six months.

15th– The Ministry of Information and Culture is Assigned to:

1. Within two months, present a practical plan to the cabinet that is coordinated amongst relevant organizations, including the governor of Ghazni Province, for the improvement of the Affairs of the Islamic Heritage Center in Ghazni City.

2. Present a specific plan to the Cabinet about the quality control of public and private media and devise minimum standards within two months.

3. Within three months, present an action plan and report to the cabinet regarding national languages, dialects, national terminologies, omitting strange and unfamiliar terminologies from established literature, strengthening national unity, and observing and amplifying established Afghan traditions. To enrich Afghan culture, utilize public and private social media.

4. Present a policy for preserving and repairing historical monuments and ancient sites to the Cabinet, within six months.

16th– The Public Health Ministry is Required to:

1. Within six months, assess public and private hospitals, and take serious steps to standardize those hospitals which provide lower quality or operate contrary to the policies of the Public Health Ministry.

2. Investigate and assess the quality and quantity of all imported and produced medicine in the markets, and present its specific reform proposals to the Cabinet, within six months.

3. Take action for standardizing provincial and district hospitals, and to institutionalize public services.

17th– The Finance Ministry is Ordered to:

1. Present a finished proposal of “Golden Hand Shake” with the help of the Independent Administrative Reform and Civil Service Commission to the Cabinet, within six months.

2. Complete the Kabul Bank affairs assigned to Kabul Bank Audit Delegation, and present its report to the office of the President, within one month.

3. Make a proposal to pursue and implement the pledges of the Tokyo Conference within two months, and inform the Cabinet about its progress on a monthly basis.

4. Present a report to the Cabinet about those officials within the ministry who are either paid by the international organizations or their salaries are regulated by international organizations. Provide information about the level of their salaries and their contracts within two months.

5. Within three months, determine the future of food enterprises, silos, and the national buses [transportation]; and provide a specific plan for determining the future of all enterprises to the Cabinet.

6. Present a plan to the cabinet to equalize the salaries of civil servants within three months, with the cooperation of the Independent Administrative Reform and Civil Service Commission.

7. Within three months, develop a plan for improving the entire state revenues and the capacity of the related ministries based on national priorities, and present a plan for introducing new sources of revenues.

8. Within six months, develop a plan to spend the budget, which is provided by the United Nations, through the national budget for the 2014 election.

9. Assess and investigate the legality, fairness, and activities of all insurance companies, and present its report to the Cabinet within six months.

18th– The Ministry of Commerce and Industry is Ordered to:

1. Within a month, present a plan to the cabinet on the nature of appointments of commerce attachés in different countries, based on the needs and volume of commerce of each specific country.

2. Within two months, present a specific plan to the Cabinet on standardizing and resolving the problems of industrial parks.

3. Within three months, present a plan to the Ccabinet on strengthening export and national economy, and on expanding small and medium sized businesses, and reinforcing domestic industries.

4. Devise a policy for national commerce, and present it to the Economic Committee of the Cabinet, within three months.

5. Complete a study of strategic gas reserves and the mechanism of their sustainability, and present it to the Cabinet within six months.

19th– The Ministry of Economy is Ordered to:

1. Within one month, present specific plans for observation of the municipalities’ projects, including developmental projects, to the Cabinet.

2. Publish all contracts with all details (the summary of contracts should not be considered as sufficient) that were signed in the past three years with national and international companies, on the internet and other media outlets, with the cooperation of the Ministries of Finance and Telecommunication and InformationTechnology.

3. Within three months, present a specific plan to the Economic Committee of the Cabinet about the necessary definitions of national economic policies and trade.

4. Within six months, present a specific developmental plan, in coordination with the Ministry of Finance, to the cabinet for the upcoming four years.

5. Within six months, present a plan about infrastructure and other major projects to the cabinet based on the recommendations of the Tokyo Conference (2012), and in coordination with related agencies.

20th– The Afghanistan Bank is Ordered to:

1. Within one month, present a report to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan about outflow from the country through airports, and on how to oversee the process.

2. Within two months, present a report to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan on how to popularize the use of afghani (Afs) in the markets during daily business, and how to prevent the use of foreign currency in the markets.

3. Present a complete report to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan about manners and functions of private banks and consider the oversight of private banks as a top priority.

21st — The Ministry of Mines is Ordered to:

1. Present within one month, and in written form, a complete list of foreign advisors; the reasons for and the sources of their hiring, along with a list of their Afghan employees who are funded by foreign sources or receive additional benefits from them to the Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet Secretary.

2. Complete the Mining and Petroleum Law and present it to the Cabinet within two months.

3. Present its plan for the prevention of unauthorized and non-professional extraction and for mine security within two months.

4. Publicize the list of individuals and companies who engage in unauthorized and illegal mining extraction through international media within two months.

5. Finalize a specific plan to provide for transparency regarding mining contracts in the country and present it to the Cabinet within three months. Contract transparency provisions will be based, above all, on agreed international principles and with considerations of the future of the country. It must publicize all contract details (not contract summaries) through the websites of the Ministries of Mines, Finance, and Economy.

22nd — The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology is Ordered to:

1. Ensure improvement in communication companies’ services and report the immunity and confidentiality of telephone subscribers’ conversations and means to prevent the use of mobile phones in terrorist attacks to the National Security Council within three months.

2. Present to the Cabinet a report regarding the feasibility of the implementation of an e-government.

23rd — The Ministry of Water and Energy is Ordered to:

1. Present a report to the Cabinet within one month regarding work progress in Machalgho, Pashdan, Shah-wa-Aroos, Salmah, Almar, and Kamal Khan electric dams and regarding the feasibility of electricity transmission from Naghlu and Sarubi [Dams] to the city of Jalalabad.

2. In cooperation from the outset with the Afghan Electricity Company, present a report to the Cabinet within three months regarding erecting an electricity network in the city of Kabul and in other major cities of the country.

3. Present to the Cabinet within six months the means for long-term self-sufficiency of electricity production in the country.

4. Subject the issue of electricity transmission to the country’s south, east and central regions, including Bamyan and Daykundi, to expert and technical assessment and present specific plans in this regard to the Cabinet within six months.

24th — The Ministry of Public Works is charged to:

1. Embark on establishing and determining the future of a railroad administration in Afghanistan within one month.

2. Begin repair of the Salangs [north and south highways] with the use of the five million dollar commitment of the international coalition forces and present a coherent report to the Cabinet within one month about these repairs as well as the building of Doshi-Pul-e Khumri road.

3. Prepare and present to the Cabinet within one month a list of all incomplete projects along with a description of reasons for their falling behind, stoppage, or delay.

4. Prepare and present to the Cabinet within two months a plan for the protection and monitoring of highways. The Ministry of Public Works is charged to place the protection and monitoring of highways and control over their construction at the top of its priorities.

25th — The Ministry of Transportation and Aviation is charged to:

1. Prepare transparent, comprehensive, and revised mechanisms for the collection of transportation revenues and present them to the Cabinet within three months.

2. Present a plan for the improvement of urban transportation to the Cabinet within six months.

3. Review the establishment and number of transportation offices abroad with a view to the transportation volumes and report to the Cabinet within three months.

4. Present to the Cabinet a specific plan for the building, expansion, and rebuilding of airports specified by province and district within three months.

5. Review the entire organizational structure and personnel of the ministry, identify corrupt officials, employ specific measures and report to the presidential office within six months.

26th — The Ministry of Urban Development is charged to:

1. Study the organizational structure and master plan for New Kabul and present a specific plan to the Cabinet within one month.

2. In cooperation with the Ministry of Justice, the Independent Commission for the Administrative Reform and Civil Service Commission, and presidential advisors, prepare and present to the Cabinet within two months a plan for the refinement of duties between municipalities and the Ministry of Urban Development.

3. To review master plans for Kabul and other provinces within three months and present it to the Cabinet.

4. To precisely and professionally assess documents of all townships [developments], identify existing construction violations as well as problems related to land ownership in those developments with the cooperation of the commission registered in Presidential Decree Number 2232, dated 27 June 2012.

27th — The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation is charged to:

1. Present to the Cabinet within three months a specific plan regarding finding markets for agricultural products and strengthening the financial and technical bases of the country’s farmers.

2. In cooperation with the Ministries of Justice, Interior, the Attorney General’s Office, and the High Office of Oversight and Anti-Corruption, to collect precise information about the seizure of government and private land across the country, initially in first rank and later in other provinces.

3. Take action regarding the creation of cold storage rooms in accordance with decision of Cabinet third resolution of the year 1391 [ 2012]

4. Organize and present a practical achievement report to the Cabinet concerning the use of barren and arable lands within six months in accordance with former guidance and instructions of the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and Cabinet’s decision.

5. Organize a specific plan about the development of agricultural farms, include its practical programs in the 2013 budget year, and present a progress report to the Cabinet within six months.

6. Take appropriate measures regarding forests, especially the development and conservation of pistachio and pine trees, and present a report to the Cabinet.

28th — The Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development is Ordered to:

1. Present a report to the Cabinet about the second phase of national reconciliation projects, mentioning the budget, exact place, the process of financing, and the officials responsible within one month, specified by provinces and districts.

2. Present a report to the Cabinet within two months about the repair and reconstruction of bridges and other facilities which were damaged as a result of flooding and natural disaster this year, specified by provinces and districts.

3. Present a specific plan to the Cabinet within three months about utilizing the provincial and district level developmental councils as unified councils, replacing multiple councils such as Council ofFfight Against Narcotics and other councils.

29th — The Ministry of Counter Narcotics is Ordered to:

1. Make a specific plan for this ministry, within a month, to come out with a policy making status where it can take practical steps to fight narcotics, and present it to the Cabinet.

2. Present a specific report in coordination with the Interior Ministry within two months to consider the merging among similar agencies, such as the office of the Deputy Minister of Counter Narcotics and other agencies.

3. Prepare a plan with the participation and cooperation of other Ministries in the fight against narcotics within three months, and present it to the Cabinet.

30th –The Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled is Ordered to:

1. Implement a new retirement system and create bank accounts for retirees within six months.

2. Place the process for distributing funds to martyrs under its investigation with the help of High Office of Oversight and Anti-Corruption within six months, and present a final report to the Cabinet.

3. Create a national employment policy in coordination with job creating agencies within six months, and present it to the Cabinet.

4. Finish distributing electronic work permits to foreigners within six months, and present a report to the Cabinet

5. Create a program for skill development and job creation within six months, and present a report to the Cabinet.

6. Take measures on the country’s zone level to create institutes and training centers for vocational teachers within six months, and present a report to the Cabinet every month about work progress.

31st — Ministry of Refugees and Repatriation Must:

1. Present a report to the Cabinet about the just distribution of township developments for returning refugees in the 34 provinces of the country within three months.

2. Present a specific plan to the Cabinet about finding employment, building townships, and providing education for returning refugees within six months.

3. Devise a policy about the return of Afghan refugees with dignity from Iran and Pakistan within six months, and present it to the Cabinet.

32nd — The Ministry of Women’s Affairs Must:

1. Conduct a public awareness campaign to reduce violence against women through mass media, pulpits, takya khana [Shi'a worship place], and other news media sources within three months.

2. Implement a national working plan, devise a monitoring system within six months, and present the first report to the Cabinet.

33rd — The Kabul Municipality Must:

1. With the help of the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, create a specific plan for naming all the places in Kabul City and for determining the fate of unplanned areas within two months, and present it to the Cabinet.

2. Prepare a plan for creating canalization and other city networks in Kabul City within four months, and present it to the Cabinet.

This decree and its addenda, which will be published later, do not interfere with the daily work of agencies and ministries. All ministries and government agencies are responsible for implementing this decree and its addenda. The secretariat of the General Directorate of Administrative Affairs and the Cabinet are charged to reinforce the current monitoring mechanism and to accurately observe the duties in this decree and its addenda. By appointing provincial monitoring teams, they should gather the specific information and present a report to the Cabinet and to the office of the president of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Hamid Karzai

President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

 

Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan

Background

On July 8, 2012, the “Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan” will be held in Tokyo.

  1. Since the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, the international community has continued its military, humanitarian and development support, to Afghanistan to ensure its security.
    Against this backdrop, the Government of Japan has played a leading role in supporting Afghanistan’s development through enhancing Afghanistan’s independence so as not to let Afghanistan return to the hotbed of terrorism again by implementing such measures as the announcement of the Ogata Initiative, which includes seamless support from humanitarian assistance to that of restoration and reconstruction, and a comprehensive development plan focusing on priority areas; hosting of the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan (Tokyo Conference) in 2002; efforts for disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) of former soldiers; the disbandment of illegal armed groups (DIAG) and the reintegration of former Taliban soldiers; education and basic medical treatment; development of farms and infrastructural preparations.
  2. At the International Afghanistan Conference in Bonn held in December 2011, the 10-year period during which the transition from the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) to the Government of Afghanistan in order to maintain peace and security will be completed (from 2015 to 2024) was defined as the “Transformation Decade”, and the international community committed to offer financial contribution towards economic development and security costs.
  3. At the Meeting on Afghanistan, which was held on the occasion of the NATO Chicago Summit in May 2012, the international community reaffirmed their intention to continue to assist the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) beyond 2014 for the sustainable stability of Afghanistan, issuing a strategic message that the ANSF will continue to be sustainable beyond 2014.
  4. Based on the outcomes of the previous international conferences, the Tokyo Conference aims to pave the way to the sustainable development of Afghanistan, taking into account the situation after 2014.

Conference:

Tokyo international conference for development and economic stability of Afghanistan ended on 8thJuly 2012 with International donors pledges to assists $16 billion aid for Afghanistan over the next four years. The Tokyo conference is being attended by high-level delegates from more than 70 nations and international organizations. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan thanks the participants, donors and technical organizers of this conference and congratulates this great achievement for Afghanistan people.

The economic vision of this conference is for long terms support for Afghanistan. Afghan experts have prepared 22 national priority programs based on their the prior one decade experience which reflect all the development and economic requirements of Afghanistan they highlighted the governance, agriculture, rural development, improvement of private sector and infrastructural projects are in the priority. By implementation of these programs Afghanistan will be self- sufficient, prosperous and economically developed on 2025.

Ministry of Finance will prepare an aid administration policy with international community for financial reforms jointly. If the international community continues implementation of projects like in the past ten years and does not consider the current situation of Afghanistan, it will not so effective for the development of the country. Afghanistan and international community work together for effectiveness of this assistance after Tokyo conference.

 

Outcome and Declaration

 

Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan The Tokyo Declaration
Partnership for Self-Reliance in Afghanistan From Transition to Transformation

July 8, 2012

Preamble

1. The Afghan Government and the International Community (hereafter ”the Participants”) met on July 8, 2012 in Tokyo to reaffirm and further consolidate their partnership from Transition to the Transformation Decade. The Tokyo Conference, together with the Chicago Summit of Afghanistan and ISAF contributing countries of May 2012, established a renewed stronger foundation for partnership to support sustainable growth and development of Afghanistan throughout the Transformation Decade (2015-2024). These undertakings are built on the outcome of the Bonn Conference in December 2011, where the Afghan Government and the International Community mutually renewed their long-term commitments in the areas of governance, security, peace process, economic and social development, and regional cooperation, as well as on the outcomes of the previous international conferences such as the London Conference in January 2010 and the Kabul Conference in July 2010. Chaired by the Japanese and Afghan Governments with the participation of ministers and representatives from 55 countries and 25 international and other organizations from around the world, today’s conference also recognized the increasing roles of new partners and neighboring and regional countries for the sustainable development of Afghanistan.

2. Since the landmark Tokyo Conference of January 2002, with the steadfast and strong support of the International Community, financial and otherwise, Afghanistan has achieved substantial development and made notable progress in many fields of development, including education, health, roads, electricity, and telecommunication, as illustrated at the symposium hosted by Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) on July 6, 2012 in Tokyo. Building on the long-held aspiration of the Afghan people, Afghanistan has laid down the foundations of the democratic system of government, including the promulgation of its new Constitution, enshrining a commitment to pluralism and human rights, in particular the equal rights of women; and the development of increasingly active civil society and vibrant and open media.

3. However, much remains to be done to realize the aspirations of the Afghan people for a peaceful, stable and self-sustaining Afghanistan. With support from the International Community, Afghanistan will continue its progress on such issues as security, with a focus on terrorism and counter-narcotics, poverty reduction, humanitarian needs, provision of basic social services, food security, protection of human rights in particular the rights of women and children, respect for individual dignity, promotion of education and culture, improvement of governance, reducing corruption, lessening reliance on international assistance, and promotion of private investment, thereby contributing to human security.

4. At the Bonn Conference, Afghanistan and the International Community shared a vision for long-term partnership to help Afghanistan attain sustainable economic growth and development and fiscal self-reliance from Transition through the Transformation Decade. Today in Tokyo, the Afghan Government and the International Community succeeded in transforming their mutual commitments made in Bonn to cooperate throughout the Transformation Decade into a solid and credible framework focused on the priorities of the Afghan Government as contained in its strategy paper Towards Self-Reliance. At today’s Conference, Afghanistan and the International Community established the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework (hereinafter the ”Tokyo Framework”), which underpins our partnership for the Transformation Decade.

Security and Peace Process

5. The Participants reaffirmed their respect for the sovereignty, unity, territorial integrity and independence of Afghanistan, which constitutes an integral component of the peace, well-being and prosperity of the region and beyond. The Participants reaffirmed that peace and security are the foundation on which a stable and prosperous society is built. The Participants recognized that the main threat to Afghanistan’s security and stability comes from terrorism and that this threat also endangers regional and international peace and security. In this regard, the Participants recognized the regional dimensions of terrorism and extremism, including terrorist safe havens, and emphasized the need for sincere and result-oriented regional and international cooperation towards a region free from terrorism in order to secure Afghanistan and safeguard the region and the world against the terrorist threat. The Participants renewed their firm determination to combat terrorism and extremism in all their forms and never to allow Afghanistan to become a sanctuary for international terrorism again.

6. The Participants stressed the critical importance of reducing drug and precursor production and trafficking, which poses another challenge to Afghanistan’s security and its economic growth as well as to international peace and stability; and the responsibility of neighboring and consuming countries to address the demand aspect of counter narcotics. In this context, the Participants took note of the importance of outcomes of the 3rd Ministerial Conference of the Paris Pact Partners on Combating the Illicit Drugs and Opiates Originating in Afghanistan held on February 16, 2012 in Vienna. The Afghan Government and the International Community reiterated their determination to counter the menace of illicit narcotic drugs through such means as crop eradication, dismantling of drug production infrastructure and promotion of alternative agriculture and law enforcement, cooperation against illicit drugs and precursor chemicals, as well as money laundering and corruption linked to such trafficking. The Participants stressed that key to this is an end to conflict and the development of alternative livelihoods, as well as effective law enforcement, border control and anti-corruption measures; and the health sector must be able to provide care for those suffering from drug abuse.

7. The Participants welcomed the progress of the Transition process so far. With the announcement of tranche 3 on May 13, 2012, 75 percent of the population will now come under the security protection provided by the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). By mid-2013, all parts of Afghanistan will have begun transition and the Afghan forces will be in the lead for security nation-wide, allowing the withdrawal from Afghanistan of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) by the end of 2014. The Participants stressed the importance of protecting civilian population in accordance with international humanitarian law and international human rights law. The Participants reaffirmed the importance for Afghanistan to attain a fully professional, capable and accountable ANSF that protects the civilian population, in particular women and children, respects the Constitution, and observes Afghan and international laws.

8. The Participants welcomed the clear vision and appropriately funded plan for a sufficient and sustainable ANSF during the Transformation Decade as endorsed at the Chicago Summit of Afghanistan and ISAF contributing countries of May 2012. The International Community reaffirmed its intention to support the training, equipping, financing, and capability development of the Afghan National Army (ANA) and Afghan National Police (ANP) during the Transformation Decade, with the understanding that over the coming years, the International Community is to gradually reduce its financial contribution commensurate with the assumption by the Afghan Government of increasing financial responsibility. The pace and the size of a gradually managed force reduction to a sustainable level are to be conditions-based and decided by the Afghan Government in consultation with the International Community. Development of civilian policing and rule of law capabilities will be among the priorities. International assistance is to be delivered using appropriate, coherent and effective mechanisms guided by the principles of flexibility, transparency, accountability, anti-corruption and cost effectiveness.

9. The Participants reaffirmed the importance of the peace and reconciliation process with a view to ending the ongoing violence in the country and restoring lasting peace and security as per the UN Security Council Resolutions and as stated in the London and Kabul Communiqu}s, and reconfirmed in the Bonn Conclusions. The process that will lead to reconciliation and peace must be inclusive, represent the legitimate interests of all Afghans and be Afghan-led and Afghan-owned. In this context, the Participants reiterated the importance of reconciliation principles such as the renunciation of violence, the breaking of ties to international terrorism and respect for the Afghan Constitution, including its human rights provisions, notably the rights of women, and emphasized the region’s respect and support for the peace process and its outcome. The Participants recognized the importance of reintegration as an integral part of the peace process, which will pave the way for community recovery and post-conflict rehabilitation of Afghan society through improving security, community development and local governance. In this regard, the International Community welcomed the progress made in reintegration efforts so far including the reintegration of over 4,700 ex-combatants. The International Community welcomed the appointment of the new Chairman of the High Peace Council, Mr. Salahuddin Rabbani, reaffirmed its strong support for the peace efforts of the Afghan Government through the High Peace Council and the Afghan Peace and Reintegration Program (APRP), and called upon the regional countries that can play a positive role to extend all possible cooperation to ensure the success of the peace process. The Participants also stressed the importance of the participation of civil society organizations and women’s groups in support of the peace process and the culture of peace and human rights in Afghan society in particular in the light of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325.

10. The Participants underscored that sustainable return and reintegration of Afghan refugees and internally displaced persons is essential to security and stability. The International Community reaffirmed the commitment, including in the Solutions Strategy made at UNHCR Geneva Conference on May 2 and 3, 2012, to enhance the development and reintegration potential in Afghanistan to create communities that are viable in the long-term and support the increased return of refugees from neighboring countries. The Afghan Government and the International Community acknowledged the burden of Afghanistan’s neighbors, in particular Pakistan and Iran, in providing temporary refuge to millions of Afghan in difficult times and are committed to further work towards their voluntary, safe and orderly return.

Governance and Strategy for Economic Self-Reliance

11. The Participants recognized that good governance at national and sub-national levels is essential for strong and sustainable economic development and improved livelihoods of the Afghan people. Through the Tokyo Framework, the Afghan Government and the International Community reaffirmed their partnership in the economic growth and development of Afghanistan through a process of mutual accountability, and the transformation of the relationship from recipient and donors to owner and partners.

12. The Participants shared the view that the International Community’s ability to sustain support for Afghanistan depends upon the Afghan Government delivering on its commitments as part of this renewed partnership. In this context, the Afghan Government confirmed its resolve, as expressed at Bonn, that the future of its political system will continue to reflect its pluralistic society and remain firmly founded in the Afghan Constitution. The Afghan people will continue to build a stable, democratic society, based on the rule of law, effective and independent judiciary and good governance, including progress in the fight against corruption. The Afghan Government affirmed that the human rights and fundamental freedoms of its citizens, in particular the equality of men and women, are guaranteed under the Constitution and Afghanistan’s international human rights obligations. The Afghan Government committed to conducting free, fair, transparent, and inclusive elections in 2014 and 2015, in which all the people of Afghanistan participate freely without internal or external interference.

13. The International Community also noted the Afghan Government’s progress on economic governance and ongoing partnership with the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and the Islamic Development Bank. The International Community welcomed Afghanistan’s efforts to date and noted the importance of further actions, including the resolution of the Kabul Bank issue.

14. The Participants reaffirmed their shared goal of achieving Afghanistan’s long-term economic growth and fiscal self-reliance. To achieve this objective, the Afghan Government has developed Towards Self-Reliance, a strategy for sustainable growth and development to be implemented through the National Priority Programs (NPPs), with a focus on economic growth, revenue generation, jobs, and human development. The Afghan Government is to continue with the planning and implementation of these NPPs in proper and needed sequencing well into the Transformation Decade with reviews at appropriate intervals. The International Community welcomed the Afghan strategy, and reaffirmed its commitment of aligning 80 percent of aid with the NPPs and channeling at least 50 percent of its development assistance through the national budget of the Afghan Government in accordance with the London and Kabul Communiqu}s. In this regard, donors welcomed the headline results from the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) review which confirm that there are established and credible mechanisms donors can use to meet their 50 percent on budget commitment beyond 2014. The Participants encouraged other partners, such as the UN agencies, to support alignment and on-budget mechanisms both through their policy roles and their programmatic activities.

15. The Participants reiterated that the Afghan Government will have special, significant, and continuing but declining fiscal requirements that cannot be met by domestic revenues in the years following Transition as has been estimated by the World Bank and the Afghan Government in preparation for the Tokyo Conference. To help address the budget shortfall, the International Community committed to directing financial support towards Afghanistan’s economic development through the Transformation Decade. In this context, in the initial stage of the Transformation Decade, the International Community committed to providing over 16 billion US dollars through 2015, and sustaining support, through 2017, at or near levels of the past decade to respond to the fiscal gap as estimated by the World Bank and the Afghan Government.

Regional Cooperation

16. Regional cooperation and integration contribute to the sustainability of development efforts, through increasing economic and trade opportunities as well as enhancing political dialogue. Keeping in mind that sustained engagement of Afghanistan’s regional partners remains key to addressing common challenges, such as terrorism, extremism, illicit drugs, refugees, disaster risk reduction, barriers to trade, investment and economic growth, the role of regional processes and fora that facilitate regular political dialogue and contribute to the building of confidence among countries is extremely important. In this context, the Participants recognized the importance of the Afghan-led and regionally owned Istanbul Process, launched on November 2, 2011, and welcomed the progress of the Istanbul Process as it moves forward incrementally towards practical implementation, by the relevant countries and organizations, of the prioritized confidence building measures (CBMs), as a crucial step towards deepening cooperation, interaction and confidence among Afghanistan’s near and extended neighbors. The Participants welcomed the outcome of the very successful ‘Heart of Asia Ministerial Conference-Kabul’ on June 14, 2012, and looked forward to the next ministerial conference to be held in Kazakhstan in the first half of 2013 .

17. The Participants encouraged further efforts for the promotion of regional economic cooperation through various other regional fora such as the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA), the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the United Nations Special Program for the Economies of Central Asia (UNSPECA). The participants also welcomed the decision of the SCO to grant Observer status to Afghanistan.

18. The Participants reaffirmed that, Afghanistan being a landlocked country, it is vital to realize the vision of regional connectivity and economic integration, where Afghanistan can serve as a hub and a land-bridge at the center of a stable and prospering region. The International Community is encouraged to support NPP projects which promote regional economic cooperation and to provide funding for the Afghanistan Infrastructure Trust Fund (AITF) managed by the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The Participants emphasized the importance of implementing projects at the regional level, including projects and programs identified in the Fifth Regional Economic Cooperation Conference on Afghanistan (RECCA V), and those identified by the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) in 2011 in the areas of transport, trade, energy and other key sectors.

19. The Participants reaffirmed the importance of enhancing trade connectivity along historical trade routes, and promoting trade, transit, investment, and border management toward regional and global integration and the creation of an enabling environment. The Participants welcomed the conclusion of the Afghanistan-Pakistan Transit Trade Agreement (APTTA), the transit agreement between Afghanistan and Tajikistan, and the Agreement on Cross-Border Transport of Persons, Vehicles, and Goods (CBTA) among Afghanistan, the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan within the framework of CAREC.

Private Sector and Civil Society

20. The Participants shared the view that developing a vibrant private sector will be essential for sustainable development of Afghanistan particularly for the long term; and that it requires the firm commitment of the Afghan Government to taking all steps necessary to achieve an enabling business environment, including establishing regulatory frameworks and building necessary infrastructure. The Participants noted the importance of promoting domestic and foreign investment in Afghanistan. The Participants also encouraged the creation of models for cross-country partnerships in investment whereby international investors can engage in partnership arrangements with those from within the region as well as with local Afghan entrepreneurs. In this context, the importance of job creation and initiatives targeting youth and women employment should be emphasized.

21. As far as investment priorities are concerned, the extractive industries, which already attract growing interest of private investors, as well as others of Afghanistan’s productive sectors, such as agriculture and energy, will be crucial in attracting private sector investment in the interest of sustainable, inclusive economic growth and job creation in Afghanistan. In this context, the Afghan Government’s Resource Corridor approach is noteworthy.

22. The Participants welcomed the results of the Delhi Investors’ Summit on Afghanistan hosted by the Confederation of Indian Industries on June 28 in Delhi, which benefitted from many participants from neighboring countries, and underscored the importance of implementing the recommendations of the summit. The Participants reaffirmed the significance of risk mitigation and credit provision schemes by the International Community in promoting private sector investment in Afghanistan. The International Community committed to taking concrete steps to promote private investment and trade by mobilizing relevant development finance institutions, export credit authorities, and other governmental and nongovernmental tools to encourage human and financial capital investments in Afghanistan. The Participants also reaffirmed the importance of women’s participation in private sector conferences as reinforcing the need for inclusive development and recognition of women’s rights.

23. The Participants emphasized the role of the Afghan civil society in advocating for and supporting human rights, good governance and sustainable social, economic and democratic development of Afghanistan through a sustained dialogue. The Participants reaffirmed that a thriving and free civil society based on respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, in particular the equality of men and women, enshrined in the Afghan Constitution, will be key to achieving a more pluralistic society in Afghanistan.

24. The Participants took note of the statement by Afghan civil society organizations at the Tokyo Conference. The Participants also welcomed the results of the civil society event jointly organized by Japanese and Afghan NGOs on July 7 in Tokyo.

The Way Forward

25. To ensure continuity and progress, the Afghan Government and the International Community decided to establish a follow-up mechanism to review their mutual long-term commitments laid out in this Declaration and the Tokyo Framework, and to verify the fulfillment of these commitments based on the notion of mutual accountability. For this purpose, the Participants decided, under the framework of the Kabul process, that follow-up meetings will take place at the ministerial level every two years, in between years at the senior officials level, and at more regular intervals under the Afghan-UN led Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board (JCMB) mechanism.

26. The Afghan Government expressed its appreciation to the International Community for its steadfast support for the security and development of Afghanistan notably for renewing its commitment at today’s Conference to support Afghanistan during the Transformation Decade. The Afghan Government also recognized with appreciation the supporting role of the UN organizations, including United Nations Assistance Mission for Afghanistan (UNAMA) in Afghanistan’s development process.

27. The Participants, and in particular the Afghan Government, expressed their deep appreciation to the Government and people of Japan for hosting the Tokyo Conference and for their steadfast support for Afghanistan’s stabilization and development. The Participants look forward to next ministerial meeting to be co-hosted by Afghanistan and the United Kingdom within the year 2014 after the presidential election in Afghanistan.

 

ANNEX
TOKYO MUTUAL ACCOUNTABILITY FRAMEWORK
(Tokyo Framework)

 

1. The Afghan Government and the International Community reaffirm their partnership in the economic growth and development of Afghanistan through a process of mutual accountability in achieving mutually decided goals as laid out in this document, hereafter the ”Tokyo Framework”. The International Community’s ability to sustain support for Afghanistan depends upon the Afghan Government delivering on its commitments described in the Tokyo Framework. This document establishes an approach based on mutual commitments of the Afghan Government and the International Community to help Afghanistan achieve its development and governance goals based on the International Community’s commitments in the Tokyo Framework. The Tokyo Framework establishes a mechanism to monitor and review commitments on a regular basis.

2. Good governance is essential for strong and sustainable economic development and improved livelihoods of the Afghan people. Recognizing this fact, this accountability framework concretizes the mutual commitments decided in the Kabul Process and reaffirmed at the Bonn Conference by stipulating shared development and governance goals and a mechanism as described in this document to hold parties accountable for achieving them. The goals are consistent with the Afghan Government’s economic and development strategy presented in Towards Self-Reliance.

3. At the December 2011 Bonn Conference, the International Community affirmed the special status of Afghanistan to receive donor assistance from Transition through Transformation in greater measure than similarly situated nations. The Afghan Government and the International Community are bound by their citizens’ expectations for the effective and transparent stewardship of resources.

4. The Afghan Government reaffirms its solemn commitment to strengthen governance, grounded in human rights, the rule of law, and adherence to the Afghan Constitution, and holds it as integral to sustained economic growth and development.

5. Working in partnership with the International Community, the Afghan Government seeks sustained development, economic growth and fiscal sustainability with declining reliance on donor financing as articulated in Towards Self-Reliance. To fulfill this vision, the Afghan Government has put together the National Priority Programs (NPPs), and, in consultation with International Community, is developing an Aid Management Policy to be endorsed by the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board (JCMB) by December 2012 to ensure optimal execution and effectiveness of international assistance aligned with national priorities.

6. As Afghanistan enters the Transformation Decade, progress from the past decade in areas that underpin sustained economic growth and development, especially for women and girls, such as education, health and other basic services, as well as strengthened respect for human rights, must continue. Challenges such as vulnerability to natural disasters and humanitarian needs must also be addressed jointly in an effective and appropriate manner in Transition and the Transformation Decade.

7. Successful transition will lead to a decade of Transformation where Afghanistan will build on the benefits of Transition to become an effectively governed and economically, socially progressing country driven by its own national priorities. This requires a paradigm shift in the nature of partnership between the Afghan Government and the International Community, from that of being recipient and donors to owner and partners. The realization of this shift necessitates re-defining the principle, reciprocal commitments and modalities of partnership, which is the purpose of the Tokyo Framework. The Tokyo Conference is the turning point to begin this re-definition in our partnership.

Principles

8. The Tokyo Framework is based on broadly accepted principles of inclusive and sustainable economic growth and development:

oGovernance has a direct bearing on development performance;
oInternational assistance aligned with national priority programs enhances efficiency and sustainability of development assistance;
oInternational assistance through national budgets can improve national institutional capacities, development performance, and accountability to its citizens;
oMonitoring of development and governance benchmarks in a transparent manner is a powerful means to enable accountability to the Afghan people, and reinforce reciprocal commitments of donors and the Afghan Government to improved development performance;
oPrivate investment both domestic and foreign is key to sustainable economic growth; and
oRegional cooperation facilitates the integration of regional economies, thus contributing to the sustainability of development efforts in Afghanistan.

Mutual Commitments

9. The Participants emphasize the importance of the delivery of assistance through adhering to the principles of aid effectiveness, that they cannot continue ”business as usual,” and must move from promise to practice. The Tokyo Framework sets out a new reinvigorated development partnership between the Afghan Government and the International Community.

10. The Afghan Government and the International Community affirm that a functional democracy based on credible and inclusive elections, a professional and efficient civil service, access to justice and the rule of law are essential to a secure, just, stable and prosperous Afghanistan. Strengthened governance and institutions with a particular focus on the rights of women are prerequisites for strong and sustainable economic growth, employment generation and prosperity for the Afghan people.

Afghanistan Governance and Development Commitments

11. The Afghan Government and the International Community are to monitor performance for five major areas of development and governance according to the modalities described below. A timeline for these indicators is to be developed by the Afghan Government for the next JCMB meeting. The desired goals and initial indicators for each area are stated below.

Representational Democracy and Equitable Elections

Goal: Conduct credible, inclusive and transparent Presidential and Parliamentary elections in 2014 and 2015 according to the Afghan Constitution, in which eligible Afghan citizens, men and women, have the opportunity to participate freely without internal or external interference in accordance with the law.

Indicators:

oDevelop, by early 2013, a comprehensive election timeline through 2015 for electoral preparations and polling dates; and
oEnsure that a robust electoral architecture is developed in a secure, participatory and transparent manner to enable successful and timely elections.

Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights

Goal: Improve access to justice for all, in particular women, by ensuring that the Constitution and other fundamental laws are enforced expeditiously, fairly and transparently; ensure that women can fully enjoy their economic, social, civil, political and cultural rights; fight against corruption, including strengthening counter-narcotics efforts; and improve the capacity of state institutions.

Indicators:

oEnsure respect for human rights for all citizens, in particular for women and children, and allow the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission and civil society organizations to perform their appropriate functions;
oDemonstrated implementation, with civil society engagement, of both the Elimination of Violence Against Women Law (EVAW), including through services to victims as well as law enforcement, and the implementation of the National Action Plan for Women (NAPWA) on an annual basis; and
oEnact and enforce the legal framework for fighting corruption including, for example, annual asset declarations of senior public officials including the executive, legislative and judiciary.

Integrity of Public Finance and Commercial Banking

Goal: Improved integrity of public financial management and the commercial banking sector.

Indicators:

oImplement the government program supported by the International Monetary Fund on schedule; continue to enforce asset recovery and accountability for those responsible for the Kabul Bank crisis; and strengthen banking supervision and reforms through Da Afghanistan Bank;
oImplement Public Financial Management Action Plan and improve the management of public funds as measured by Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment by 20 percent and raise the transparency of public funds measured by the Open Budget Initiative (OBI) to more than 40 percent; and
oImplement the recommendations from the Financial Action Task Force Asia Pacific Group regarding anti-money laundering and combating terrorist financing.

Government Revenues, Budget Execution and Sub-National Governance

Goal: Improve the Afghan Government’s revenue collection and capacity of line Ministries’ to develop and execute budgets accountable to, and incorporating, local needs and preferences.

Indicators:
oThrough more efficient, transparent and accountable customs and tax systems, raise the ratio of revenue collection to GDP from 11 percent to 15 percent by 2016, and to 19 percent by 2025;
oImprove budget execution to 75 percent by 2017;
oEnact a legal framework to clarify roles, and responsibilities of government agencies at national, provincial and district levels, in line with the 2010 Sub-National Governance Policy; and
oDevelop a provincial budgeting process that includes provincial input into the relevant Ministries formulation of budget requests, linked to a provincial planning process in which Provincial Councils have their consultative roles.

Inclusive and Sustained Growth and Development

Goal: Achieve inclusive and sustained growth through a focus on human development, food security, private investment, and decent work and employment opportunities and the improvement of ranking in the human development index.

Indicators:

oEnsure adequate resource allocations to achieve Afghanistan’s Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for health, gender, education, environment and food security and use of MDG indicators to measure progress;
oStrengthened enabling environment for the private sector, as measured by the World Bank Doing Business Index, including development of an Extractive Industries Development Framework that governs Afghanistan’s natural wealth through an accountable, efficient and transparent mechanism which builds upon and surpasses international best practices;
oEncourage and support regional economic initiatives by leveraging investments in the agriculture sector and resource corridors as primary drivers of growth; and establish Road, Rail and Civil Aviation Institutions; and
oTake steps necessary to achieve World Trade Organization (WTO) accession by the end of 2014.

International Commitment to Improving Aid Effectiveness

12. The Participants reiterate that the Afghan Government will have special, significant, and continuing but declining fiscal requirements that cannot be met by domestic revenues in the years following Transition as has been estimated by the World Bank and the Afghan Government in preparation for the Tokyo Conference. To help address the budget shortfall, the International Community commits to directing financial support towards Afghanistan’s economic development through the Transformation Decade. In this context, in the initial stage of the Transformation Decade, the International Community commits to providing over 16 billion US dollars through 2015, and sustaining support, through 2017, at or near levels of the past decade to respond to the fiscal gap as estimated by the World Bank and the Afghan Government. The International Community welcomes the Afghan strategy, and reaffirms its commitment of aligning 80 percent of aid with the NPPs and channeling at least 50 percent of its development assistance through the national budget of the Afghan Government in accordance with the London and Kabul Communiqu}s.

13. Participating donors aim to increase the share of their assistance provided via the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) incentive program, or other mechanisms as requested or agreed by the Afghan Government, to 10 percent by 2014, with a goal of 20 percent of funding through incentive mechanisms by the end of the Transformation Decade. Incentive programs should seek to provide the Afghan Government with more flexible, on-budget funding in conjunction with progress on specific economic development achievements.

14. The International Community commits to taking concrete steps to improve aid delivery consistent with partnership and global aid effectiveness principles, and adhering to the Afghan Government’s Aid Management Policy upon completion and endorsement by the JCMB by December 2012. Alignment of donor assistance to Afghan National Priorities is to be determined in reference to specific deliverables outlined by the Afghan Government in the approved NPPs. Donors intend to consult with the Afghan Government to identify appropriate funding modalities for implementing Afghan National Priorities. The Afghan Government may decline any aid financing that is insufficiently aligned with Afghan Government’s priorities, has a low return on investment or high transaction costs.

15. The International Community aims to limit the practice of sub-contracting in all specialized and labor-intensive projects to only one vertical level to reduce overhead costs and improve transparency.
Modalities

16. The Afghan Government and the International Community decide to establish a mechanism to monitor their performance of indicators and work plans through an established review process, building on the JCMB process. The Afghan Government, facilitated by the Ministry of Finance and relevant ministries, is responsible for achieving the governance and development indicators specified in the Tokyo Framework. Development partners are responsible for delivering on their aid commitments stated in the Tokyo Declaration and the Tokyo Framework.

17. The Afghan Government and the International Community are to implement the Tokyo Framework according to the modalities outlined below. The Afghan Government and the International Community are to establish a transparent and regular monitoring process, building on a reinvigorated Kabul Process and JCMB, to hold each other accountable for reciprocal commitments.

18. The three elements of the mechanism are:
oThe Standing Committees and Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board (JCMB) to review progress on a regular basis;
oA Senior Officials Meeting to be held in 2013 and every second year subsequently to review progress and update indicators where needed; and
oA Ministerial-level Meeting to be held in 2014, and every second year subsequently to review progress, update indicators, assess resource requirements and renew international commitments.

19. The first Ministerial-level Meeting will be co-chaired by Afghanistan and the United Kingdom.

 

Summary

On July 8 (Sunday), the Japanese and Afghan Governments jointly held the Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan. A summary and evaluation of the conference are as follows. At the Conference, the Tokyo Declaration was adopted. (attached).

1. Summary
(1) Participating countries and organizations
Organizer:The Japanese and Afghan Governments
(Chaired by H.E. Mr. Koichiro Gemba, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan; H.E. Dr.
Hazrat Omar Zakhilwal, Minister of Finance of Afghanistan; H.E. Dr.
Zalmai Rassoul, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan)
Major participants:H.E. Mr. Hamid Karzai, President of Afghanistan; H.E. Mr. Ban Ki-Moon, Secretary-General of the UN; H.E. Ms. Hillary Clinton, Secretary of State of the US; H.E. Mr. Laurent Fabius, Minister of Foreign Affairs of France; H.E. Dr. Guido Westerwelle, Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs and Deputy Chancellor of Germany; Rt Hon Mr. Andrew Mitchell MP, Secretary of State for International Development of the UK; the Hon.Bob Carr, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Australia; H.E. Mr. S. M. Krishna, External Affairs Minister of India; H.E. Ms. Hina Rabbani Khar, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Pakistan; H.E. Dr. Ali Akbar Salehi, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Iran, and delegates of 55 countries and 25 international organizations.

(2) Conference Summary
At the Tokyo Conference, the international community aimed to address its strategic message and to commit to supporting development efforts of Afghanistan towards its self-reliance during the Transformation Decade (2015 – 2024). To support this substantially, a partnership between the Afghan Government and the international community during the Transformation Decade was embodied. Mutual commitments and accountability of Afghanistan and the international community for the sustainable development of Afghanistan were clarified, and a mechanism under which this can be checked and reviewed on a regular basis was established (the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework).

Commitments by Afghanistan
Afghanistan committed to implementing, effectively and with transparency, strategies for growth and development, based on paper Toward Self-reliance which details growth and development strategies throughout the Transformation Decade.
Furthermore, Afghanistan committed to certainly implementing goals and indicators for the five areas of (1) Representational Democracy and Equitable Elections, (2) Governance, Rule of Law and Human Rights, (3) Integrity of Public Finance and Commercial Banking, (4) Government Revenues, Budget Execution and Sub-National Governance, and (5) inclusive and Sustainable Growth and Development, as well as their certain implementation.

Commitments by the international community
At the Tokyo Conference, the World Bank presented the results of its provisional calculations of the yearly average fiscal gap to 2017, which was either approximately $3.3 billion or $3.9 billion per year depending on the two kinds of growth scenarios. The Afghan Government showed its own estimate of the average fiscal gap to 2020, which was approximately $3.9 billion.
At the Conference, the international community committed to providing over $16 billion through 2015.

Contribution by Japan
It was emphasized that since the Tokyo Conference in January 2002, Japan has played a leading role as the second largest donor behind the US in development assistance to Afghanistan, providing support totaling $3.3 billion till the end of 2011, across various areas including political processes, infrastructural improvement, basic human needs, industrial and agricultural development, and culture.
Based on its past experience, Japan announced that it would provide up to around $3 billion of assistance to Afghanistan in about 5 years from 2012, in the field of socio-economic development and enhancement of security capacity, specifically stressing (1) agricultural sector, (2) infrastructure development and (3) human resource development. Japan expressed its intention to continue to provide contribution to the Afghan-led nation-building even after 2017 through assistance in those areas..
In addition, in order to further strengthen regional cooperation between Afghanistan and its neighboring countries, Japan announced that it is implementing projects worth around $1 billion in neighboring countries, and through these projects it would support the development of the corridor which goes across Afghanistan from Central Asia to Karachi in Pakistan.

2. Evaluation
(1)Since the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan (Tokyo Conference) was held in January 2002, Japan has been playing a leading role in providing support for Afghanistan. The Tokyo Conference on Afghanistan represented the culmination of a series of negotiations with the international conferences which started in the Bonn Conference in December 2011, and brought to a conclusion this year. Based on the discussions on security and regional cooperation at conferences such as the NATO Chicago Summit, the Regional Economic Cooperation Conference on Afghanistan (RECCA), and the Istanbul Process ”Heart of Asia” Ministerial Conference, a specific path for sustainable growth in Afghanistan from 2015 was outlined at the Tokyo Conference, and a powerful strategic message, that Afghanistan would remain stable and be able to continue development beyond 2014, was delivered to the people of Afghanistan, as well as to the international community.

(2)Japan took the initiative and secured high-level participation of the major donor countries such as India, Pakistan and Iran and international development organizations. Through long-term coordination efforts as a host nation, Japan was able to secure commitments from the international community for strong support totaling over $16 billion till 2015, as well as commitments from Afghanistan in the areas of development and governance. Japan also managed to demonstrate its presence in the international arena by newly establishing Tokyo Framework.

(3)The result of the Tokyo Conference was that Afghanistan and the international community will enter into a concrete partnership with financial backing, under the newly formulated the Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework Tokyo Framework. As the host nation of the said Conference, Japan will pursue follow-up efforts under its own initiative on the basis of the Tokyo Framework. It is important for Japan to continue playing a proactive and positive role with the international community in supporting Afghanistan.