Tuesday, October 21, 2014

United Nations Millennium Goals

1
Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less

    than a dollar a day.

  • Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer fromhunger

2

Achieve universal primary education
  • Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course ofprimary schooling.

3
Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015.
4
Reduce child mortality
  • Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five
5
Improve maternal health
  • Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio
6
Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
  • Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
  • Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
7
Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources
  • Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water
  • Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020
8
Develop a global partnership for development
  • Develop further an open trading and financial system that is rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory, includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction— nationally and internationally
  • Address the least developed countries’ special needs. This includes tariff- and quota-free access for their exports; enhanced debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries; cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction
  • Address the special needs of landlocked and small island developing States
  • Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt problems through national and international measures to make debt sustainable in the long term
  • In cooperation with the developing countries, develop decentand productive work for youth
  • In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries
  • In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies— especially information and communications technologies

Member States

A

  • Afghanistan (19 November 1946)
  • Albania (14 December 1955)
  • Algeria (8 October 1962)
  • Andorra (28 July 1993)
  • Angola (1 December 1976)
  • Antigua and Barbuda (11 November 1981)
  • Argentina (24 October 1945)
  • Armenia (2 March 1992)
  • Australia (1 November 1945)
  • Austria (14 December 1955)
  • Azerbaijan (2 March 1992)

B

  • Bahamas (18 September 1973)
  • Bahrain (21 September 1971)
  • Bangladesh (17 September 1974)
  • Barbados (9 December 1966)
  • Belarus (24 October 1945)
  • Belgium (27 December 1945)
  • Belize (25 September 1981)
  • Benin (20 September 1960)
  • Bhutan (21 September 1971)
  • Bolivia (14 November 1945)
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (22 May 1992)
  • Botswana (17 October 1966)
  • Brazil (24 October 1945)
  • Brunei Darussalam (21 September 1984)
  • Bulgaria (14 December 1955)
  • Burkina Faso (20 September 1960)
  • Burundi (18 September 1962)

C

  • Cambodia (14 December 1955)
  • Cameroon (20 September 1960)
  • Canada (9 November 1945)
  • Cape Verde (16 September 1975)
  • Central African Republic (20 September 1960)
  • Chad (20 September 1960)
  • Chile (24 October 1945)
  • China (24 October 1945)
  • Colombia (5 November 1945)
  • Comoros (12 November 1975)
  • Congo, Republic of the… (20 September 1960)
  • Costa Rica (2 November 1945)
  • Côte d’Ivoire (20 September 1960)
  • Croatia (22 May 1992)
  • Cuba (24 October 1945)
  • Cyprus (20 September 1960)
  • Czech Republic (19 January 1993)

D

E

  • Ecuador (21 December 1945)
  • Egypt (24 October 1945)
  • El Salvador (24 October 1945)
  • Equatorial Guinea (12 November 1968)
  • Eritrea (28 May 1993)
  • Estonia (17 September 1991)
  • Ethiopia (13 November 1945)

F

  • Fiji (13 October 1970)
  • Finland (14 December 1955)
  • France (24 October 1945)

G

  • Gabon (20 September 1960)
  • Gambia (21 September 1965)
  • Georgia (31 July 1992)
  • Germany (18 September 1973)
  • Ghana (8 March 1957)
  • Greece (25 October 1945)
  • Grenada (17 September 1974)
  • Guatemala (21 November 1945)
  • Guinea (12 December 1958)
  • Guinea-Bissau (17 September 1974)
  • Guyana (20 September 1966)

H

  • Haiti (24 October 1945)
  • Honduras (17 December 1945)
  • Hungary (14 December 1955)

I

  • Iceland (19 November 1946)
  • India (30 October 1945)
  • Indonesia (28 September 1950)
  • Iran, Islamic Republic of… (24 October 1945)
  • Iraq (21 December 1945)
  • Ireland (14 December 1955)
  • Israel (11 May 1949)Italy (14 December 1955)

J

  • Jamaica (18 September 1962)
  • Japan (18 December 1956)
  • Jordan (14 December 1955)

K

  • Kazakhstan (2 March 1992)
  • Kenya (16 December 1963)
  • Kiribati (14 September 1999)
  • Kuwait (14 May 1963)
  • Kyrgyzstan (2 March 1992)

L

  • Lao People’s Democratic Republic (14 December 1955)
  • Latvia (17 September 1991)
  • Lebanon (24 October 1945)
  • Lesotho (17 October 1966)
  • Liberia (2 November 1945)
  • Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (14 December 1955)
  • Liechtenstein (18 September 1990)
  • Lithuania (17 September 1991)
  • Luxembourg (24 October 1945)

M

  • Madagascar (20 September 1960)
  • Malawi (1 December 1964)
  • Malaysia (17 September 1957)
  • Maldives (21 September 1965)
  • Mali (28 September 1960)
  • Malta (1 December 1964)
  • Marshall Islands (17 September 1991)
  • Mauritania (27 October 1961)
  • Mauritius (24 April 1968)
  • Mexico (7 November 1945)
  • Micronesia, Federated States of… (17 September 1991)
  • Moldova (2 March 1992)
  • Monaco (28 May 1993)
  • Mongolia (27 October 1961)
  • Montenegro (28 June 2006)
  • Morocco (12 November 1956)
  • Mozambique (16 September 1975)
  • Myanmar (19 April 1948)

N

  • Namibia (23 April 1990)
  • Nauru (14 September 1999)
  • Nepal (14 December 1955)
  • Netherlands (10 December 1945)
  • New Zealand (24 October 1945)
  • Nicaragua (24 October 1945)
  • Niger (20 September 1960)
  • Nigeria (7 October 1960)

Norway (27 November 1945)

O

Oman (7 October 1971)

P

  • Pakistan (30 September 1947)
  • Palau (15 December 1994)
  • Panama (13 November 1945)
  • Papua New Guinea (10 October 1975)
  • Paraguay (24 October 1945)
  • Peru (31 October 1945)
  • Philippines (24 October 1945)
  • Poland (24 October 1945)
  • Portugal (14 December 1955)

Q

  • Qatar (21 September 1971)

R

T

  • Saint Kitts and Nevis (23 September 1983)
  • Saint Lucia (18 September 1979)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (16 September 1980)
  • Samoa (15 December 1976)
  • San Marino (2 March 1992)
  • Sao Tome and Principe (16 September 1975)
  • Saudi Arabia (24 October 1945)
  • Senegal (28 September 1960)
  • Serbia (1 November 2000)
  • Seychelles (21 September 1976)
  • Sierra Leone (27 September 1961)
  • Singapore (21 September 1965)
  • Slovakia (19 January 1993)
  • Slovenia (22 May 1992)
  • Solomon Islands (19 September 1978)
  • Somalia (20 September 1960)
  • South Africa (7 November 1945)
  • Spain (14 December 1955)
  • Sri Lanka (14 December 1955)
  • Sudan (12 November 1956)
  • Suriname (4 December 1975)
  • Swaziland (24 September 1968)
  • Sweden (19 November 1946)
  • Switzerland (10 September 2002)
  • Syrian Arab Republic (24 October 1945)

S

  • Tajikistan (2 March 1992)
  • Thailand (16 December 1946)
  • The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (8 April 1993)
  • Timor-Leste (27 September 2002)
  • Togo (20 September 1960)
  • Tonga (14 September 1999)
  • Trinidad and Tobago (18 September 1962)
  • Tunisia (12 November 1956)
  • Turkey (24 October 1945)
  • Turkmenistan (2 March 1992)
  • Tuvalu (5 September 2000)

T

  • Uganda (25 October 1962)
  • Ukraine (24 October 1945)
  • United Arab Emirates (9 December 1971)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (24 October 1945)
  • United Republic of Tanzania (14 December 1961)
  • United States of America (24 October 1945)
  • Uruguay (18 December 1945)
  • Uzbekistan (2 March 1992)

U

  • Uganda (25 October 1962)
  • Ukraine (24 October 1945)
  • United Arab Emirates (9 December 1971)
  • United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (24 October 1945)
  • United Republic of Tanzania (14 December 1961)
  • United States of America (24 October 1945)
  • Uruguay (18 December 1945)
  • Uzbekistan (2 March 1992)

V

  • Vanuatu (15 September 1981)
  • Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of… (15 November 1945)
  • Viet Nam (20 September 1977)

Y

Z

  • Zambia (1 December 1964)
  • Zimbabwe (25 August 1980)

Security Council

security1.jpg The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the Charter,for the maintenance of international peace and security. It is so organized as to be able to function continuously, and a representative of each of its members must be present at all times at United Nations Headquarters. On 31 January 1992, the first ever Summit Meeting of the Council was convened at Headquarters, attended by Heads of State and Government of 13 of its 15 members and by the Ministers for Foreign Affairs of the remaining two. The Council may meet elsewhere than at Headquarters; in 1972, it held a session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and the following year in Panama City, Panama.

When a complaint concerning a threat to peace is brought before it, the Council’s first action is usually to recommend to the parties to try to reach agreement by peaceful means. In some cases, the Council itself undertakes investigation and mediation. It may appoint special representatives or request the Secretary-General to do so or to use his good offices. It may set forth principles for a peaceful settlement.

When a dispute leads to fighting, the Council’s first concern is to bring it to an end as soon as possible. On many occasions, the Council has issued cease-fire directives which have been instrumental in preventing wider hostilities. It also sends United Nations peace-keeping forces to help reduce tensions in troubled areas, keep opposing forces apart and create conditions of calm in which peaceful settlements may be sought. The Council may decide on enforcement measures, economic sanctions (such as trade embargoes) or collective military action.

A Member State against which preventive or enforcement action has been taken by the Security Council may be suspended from the exercise of the rights and privileges of membership by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. A Member State which has persistently violated the principles of the Charter may be expelled from the United Nations by the Assembly on the Council’s recommendation.

A State which is a Member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that that country’s interests are affected. Both Members of the United Nations and non-members, if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, are invited to take part, without a vote, in the Council’s discussions; the Council sets the conditions for participation by a non-member State.

The Presidency of the Council rotates monthly, according to the English alphabetical listing of its member States.

Functions and Powers

Under the Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are:

  • to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations;
  • to investigate any dispute or situation which mightlead to international friction;
  • to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;
  • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;
  • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;
  • to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
  • to take military action against an aggressor;
  • to recommend the admission of new Members;
  • to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in “strategic areas”;
  • to recommend to the GeneralAssembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.

Structure

Committees:
Standing Committees — There are three committees at present, and each includes representatives of all Security Council member States.

  • Security Council Committee of Experts
  • Security Council Committee on Admission of New Members
  • Security Council Committee on Council meetings away from Headquarters

Ad Hoc Committees — They are established as needed, comprise all Council members and meet in closed session.

Sanctions Committees

Sanctions Committees Bureaux for 2008

Terminated Sanctions Committees

Working Groups:

Working Groups Bureaux for 2006

Peacekeeping Operations

Since 1948 there have been 63 United Nations peace-keeping operations.

International Tribunals

Sources: Basic Facts About the United Nations, Sales No.E.98.I.20., Press Release GA/9784 (10 Oct. 2000), and the Office of the Director of Security Council Affairs Division, Department of Political Affairs.
Last updated on 8 June 2006