Friday, April 18, 2014

Rethinking Iran

By FRANCO FRATTINI-

ROME – Why does Iran matter so much to the rest of the world? There are at least three reasons. First, Iran has become a key test case of the international community’s capacity to prevent nuclear proliferation, which would make the world increasingly unpredictable and dangerous. Second, Iran matters for the future stability of the Middle East, where its influence as well as the influence of the Shiites is on the increase. Third, Iran matters for the stabilization of neighboring Afghanistan.

For years the international community has been focusing almost exclusively on the nuclear aspect. Alas, diplomatic efforts to persuade Iran to suspend the enrichment of uranium have failed to break the stalemate. After six years of “nuclear-only” diplomacy, the time has come to tackle the Iranian question in a more comprehensive manner. The new strategy should be based on two assumptions.

First, we cannot wait for the nuclear issue to be resolved before engaging Iran on other crucial fronts. An indefinitely isolated Iran could become an incorrigible saboteur in many areas, from Central Asia to the Middle East to Afghanistan.

Second, Turkey and the moderate Arab countries, as well as India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, have just as much of an interest in Iran as do the United States, the European Union, China and Russia. These countries legitimately expect their interests to be taken into account. They should be more closely involved in the international decision-making process if we want our policies on Iran to become more effective.

Italy was the first to propose that Iran should be directly involved in the debate on Afghanistan. We have been supported in our endeavor by the pragmatic approach adopted by the U.S. administration. The governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan also have apprised Italy of their belief that Iran can be part of the solution for the stability of their region.

The top-level leadership talks held in Tehran recently point to the three countries’ willingness to work together. Moreover, Western and Iranian interests in Afghanistan potentially coincide. Tehran has an objective interest in seeing Afghanistan “de-Talibanized” and stable, and in seeing a government in Kabul willing and able to keep narcotics from flooding into Iran, where drug abuse has become a national emergency.

For that reason, Italy has invited Iran to take part in the G-8 meeting of foreign ministers that is to be held in Trieste on June 26 and 27 and whose “outreach” session will be devoted to the stabilization of Afghanistan and Pakistan. We want Iran, along with other regional actors, to play a constructive part in a new regional compact designed to consolidate Afghanistan’s stability.

We urge Iran to contribute to the collective achievement of a number of regional benchmarks in several areas. These benchmarks range from border control, to fighting narcotrafficking and arms smuggling, to the implementation of a number of regionally co-sponsored economic projects designed to help revive the Afghan economy.

The Trieste meeting is meant to launch a process whose implementation will demand a sustainable commitment from every single regional and international player involved. Thus Afghanistan can be an important test for measuring Iran’s willingness to modify its conduct and to adopt a cooperative posture toward its neighbors and the international community.

Italy believes that Iran’s full and direct involvement in the Afghan question should be pursued at once and independently of attempts to resolve the nuclear issue. The nuclear issue can follow the path mapped out by the “5 plus 1″ group (the United States, Britain, France, China, Russia and Germany), although that group will need to become more inclusive by bringing in other relevant stakeholders if it is to increase its chances of success.

If Iran is re-engaged over Afghanistan and Pakistan, it may feel more motivated to interact constructively with the international community on the nuclear issue and on the Middle East, where its interests are now at variance with those of the international community.

Franco Frattini is Italy’s minister of foreign affairs.

Source: The New York Times

UNICEF Draft Country Programme for Afghanistan

Statement of H.E. Mr. Zahir Tanin
Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the United Nations
At the Executive Board meeting of UNICEF
On the UNICEF Draft Country Programme for Afghanistan

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Mr. President,

At the outset allow me to congratulate you on the leadership you have shown in the work of the Executive Board. I also wish to express my appreciation to Ms. Anne Venneman for her comprehensive presentation on Monday of progress and achievements set against the medium-term strategic plan. Finally I would like to thank Mr. Toole for his presentation of the new Afghanistan Draft Country Programme.

UNICEF has shown an admirable dedication to its work in Afghanistan. UNICEF has long been a primary partner of the Government of Afghanistan in ensuring progress of all MDGs relating to children, especially important to our country because 68% of the Afghan population is under 25. We continue to value our partnership with UNICEF as we fight together to provide Afghan children with better lives.
Mr. President,
The Government of Afghanistan welcomes the new draft country programme. We believe that it outlines an effective framework for partnership between the Government of Afghanistan and UNICEF in terms of aligning policies and funding with the priorities identified in our National Development Strategy. Its budgeting is well-balanced and correctly identifies priority areas. We particularly value UNICEF’s focus on integrated early childhood development, girls’ education, child education in general, and emergency preparedness and response.
Mr. President,
Our priorities are tested by recent challenges: a deterioration of the security situation, the humanitarian and food crises, and increasing poverty. The Taliban disproportionately harms the most vulnerable, particularly women and children. The insecurity they cause also impedes the achievements of MDGs 2 and 3, and obstructs access to basic services such as safe water, healthcare and education. Mother and child mortality in Afghanistan remain among the highest in the world.
With respect to education, as of September 2008, around 640 schools around the country are closed, including 58% of the schools in Kandahar province, and all of the girls’ schools in parts of Farah province. In the 10 months between May 2007 and June 2008, 161 teachers and students were killed, 57 through suicide bomb attacks, and 112 schools were burned. In the winter of 2008, security deteriorated even further, and in January 2009 there was a 75% increase in the number of incidents compared to a year earlier. Deliberate attacks against female students and teachers are typically particularly barbaric, including the acid attacks last fall, and the recently alleged attacks by poison gas.
Despite these challenges, Afghans still believe that education provides the best hope for a different future. From 2002 to today we have seen an increase in the number of children in school from 1.78mil in 2002 to 6.14mil in 2008, of which 2.19mil are girls. Still, only half of school-age children are enrolled in school, and there is great disparity in enrollment between urban and rural children. Thus we commend UNICEF’s approach in focusing on community-based schools that increase access to education. We also encourage the donor community to continue building schools and, particularly, training teachers, in support of the Afghanistan National Education Plan. Since only 15.5% of women in Afghanistan are literate, it is particularly essential to train female teachers, and to raise an awareness and advocacy program for local community and religious leaders to stress the importance of educating women.
Mr. President,
In addition to education, we must strengthen the state of Afghanistan to protect our children from the Taliban, who have been identified as a group that recruits children for practices such as suicide attacks. Cooperation between UNICEF and the monitoring and reporting mechanism for children and armed conflict could ensure wider access to information regarding child recruitment. Our government is also currently preparing its first progress report on the Convention on the Rights of Children. Child labor is a particularly difficult issue in Afghanistan, where poverty and social pressure can push children to leave school into exploitive work. Our Parliament is currently discussing the ratification of Convention 182 on elimination of the most serious forms of child labor. In addition, we are revising the juvenile code. UNICEF can provide valuable assistance to our Government in all this work.
Finally, Mr. President,
The situation in Afghanistan and the region is more and more precarious. Violence in our region threatens to push more refugees into our country. UNICEF will be crucial to providing these people with urgently needed assistance. To coherently adapt to the changes of the situation, we will need coordination between the members of the UN family, the donor community, and the government of Afghanistan as we work towards improving the lives of children in Afghanistan.
I thank you.